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Og^gO ! 



WEriLEY 
UBtlARY 



PHILOSOPHY AS A SCIENCE 



PHILOSOPHY 

AS A 

SCIENCE 



A 8TNOP8I8 

OF THB WRITINGS 

OF 



Dr. Paul Carus 



CONTAINING AN 
INTRODUCTION 
WRITTEN BY 
HIMSELF, SUM- 
MARIES OF HIS 
BOOKS, AND A 
LIST OF ARTI- 
CLES TO DATE. 



CHICAGO 

THE OPEN COURT PUBLISHING COMPANY 

London Agbnts: KEGAN PAUL, 
TRUBMBR, TRBNCH A CO., LTD. 



1909 



Copyright by 
THE OPEN COURT PUBLISHING CO. 

1909. 






FOREWORD. 

IN preparing this sketch of the philosophy 
with which I have identified my work, 
I have found it now and then unavoidable 
to be more personal than is my wont. 
However, the use of the pronoun in the 
first person is not meant as a claim, but 
as a limitation. It is, after all, neces- 
sary to let the reader see in this presen- 
tation of "Philosophy as a Science," how 
much or how little may be regarded as 
assured scientific results which have been 
generally accepted, and where a personal 
contribution to it still awaits the consensus 

of the competent. 

Paul Carus. 



CONTENTS 

Pagb 

Foreword 

Introduction 1-28 

Age of Science i 

Science and Scientific Methods 2 

Form and the Philosophy of Form 5 

The Scope of Philosophy 7 

The Philosophy of the Future 8 

No Things-in-Themselves 10 

Causality, The Law of Transformation 11 

The Importance of Psychology 12 

The Doctrine of Parallelism 14 

Organization and Memory 16 

Memory, the Soul Builder ig 

The Immortality Problem 21 

Qeamess and Mysticism 22 

The Philosophy of Pure Form , 24 

Religion and Art 25 

Summaries of Books 29-93 

Philosophy and Psychology 29-44 

Monism and Meliorism 29 

Fundamental Problems 29 

Three Philosophical Pamphlets 31 

Primer of Philosophy 31 

Kant's Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysic. . . 32 

Kant and Spencer 33 

The Surd of Metaphysics 34 

The Soul of Man 37 

The Foundations of Mathematics 40 

Whence and Whither? 43 

•• 

Vll 



INTRODUCTION. 



THE AIM of all my writings centers in 
* the endeavor to build up a sound and 
tenable philosophy, one that would be as 
objective as any branch of the natural 
sciences. I do not want to propound a new 
philosophy of my own but to help in work- 
ing out philosophy itself, viz., philosophy 
as a science ; and after many years of labor 
in this field I have come to the conclusion, 
not only that it is possible, but also that 
such a conception of the world is actually 
preparing itself in the minds of men. 

The old philosophies are constructions of 
purely subjective significance, while agnos- 
ticism, tired of these vain efforts and lack- 
ing strength to furnish a better solution 
of the problem, claims that the main tasks 
of philosophy cannot be accomplished; but 
if science exists, there ought to be also a 
philosophy of science, for there must be a 
reason for the reliability of knowledge. 

Every success of scientific inquiry, every 
progress of research in the several fields 
of knowledge, every new invention based 
upon methodical experiment, is a refuta- 
tion of agnosticism — ^the philosophy of 
nescience — in so far as these several ad- 
vances corroborate the reliability of science. 



Philosophy 
an objective 
science. 



Agnosticism 
a failure. 



PHILOSOPHY AS A SCIENCE. 



Dawn of 
the age 
of 
science. 



Science 
and 

scientific 
methods. 



Mankind has become more and more con-* 
vinced of the efficiency of science, and in 
this sense the philosophy of science prevails 
even now as a still latent but nevertheless 
potent factor in the life of mankind, mani- 
festing itself in innumerable subconscious 
tendencies of the age. We may confidently 
hope that the future which the present 
generation is preparing will be the age of 
science. 

IT MIGHT seem redundant to ask the 
* question, "What is Science?" but we will, 
nevertheless, answer it briefly. Science is 
not the monopoly of the naturalist or the 
scholar, nor is it anything mysterious or 
esoteric. Science is the search for truth, 
and truth is the adequacy of a description 
of facts. Science diflFers from so-called 
common sense only in this, that its work 
is done with scrupulous care according to 
well-considered methods and under the 
constant supervision of a reexamination. 

Science is based upon observation and 
experience. It starts with describing the 
facts of our experience, and complements 
experience with experiment. It singles out 
the essential features of facts, and gen- 
eralizes the result in formulas for applica- 
tion to future experience; partly, in order 
to predict coming events; partly, to bring 
about desirable results. Generalized state- 



INTRODUCTION. 



ments of facts are called truths, and our 
stock of truths, knowledge. 

There are always two factors needed for 
establishing scientific truth, indeed, for 
establishing any kind of knowledge: they 
are, first, sense experience, and second, 
method. By method we mean the function 
of handling the material furnished by sense 
activity, viz., identifying samenesses and 
differences, comparing various phenomena, 
1. e., classifying and contrasting them; 
measuring and counting them; tracing the 
succession of cause and effect, and arrang- 
ing the truths thus established into an har- 
monious system. 

DIGHT HERE it will be found neces- 
*^ sary to point out the significance of 
the distinction between form and substance. 
An evaluation of pure form will yield on 
the one hand the formal sciences, arith- 
metic, geometry with all other branches of 
mathematics, pure mechanics, logic, and all 
that is kin to it; and, on the other hand, 
the sciences that investigate concrete things 
as well as definite occurrences — ^physics, 
chemistry, astronomy, physiology, psychol- 
ogy, history, etc. 

The philosophy of science uses the 
formal sciences as the organ of thought, 
and supplies to the sciences of concrete 
phenomena the method of establishing truth 



Philosophy 

of science 
an 

harmonious 
system. 



Formal 
sciences 
the organ 
of 
thought. 



PHILOSOPHY AS A SCIENCE. 



Monism 
and the 
economy of 
thought 



Contrasts 
but no 
contradiction 
in the 
Cosmos. 



Truth. 



by describing facts of the same kind accord- 
ing to their characteristic and significant 
features in general formulas, and to sys- 
tematize these formulas in a unitary world- 
conception, commonly called "Monism." 

The several sciences are traveling on this 
path; they have instinctively found the 
right methods which alone can be justified 
before the tribunal of the philosophy of 
science, and there is nothing in the entire 
domain of existence that cannot become an 
object of scientific investigation. 

Experience verifies our conviction that 
the assured results of the various sciences, 
the so-called scientific truths, never con- 
flict with each other; they may form con- 
trasts but they never contradict one another. 
This indicates that the world in which we 
live is a cosmos, not a chaos. 

By this statement that the world is a 
cosmos is meant that its constitution is con- 
sistent in all its details; it presents itself 
to us as a unitary system; and a genuine 
truth (i. e., a formula describing the gen- 
eral features of a definite set of facts), if 
once proved to be true, will remain true 
forever. We may see old truths in a new 
light, we may better and ever better learn 
to understand their significance and also the 
relation between several truths ; but a truth 
will always remain true. In other words, 
the consistency of the world is both uni- 



INTRODUCTION. 



versal and eternal. What is true here is 
true everywhere, and what is true now is 
true forever. 

CRNST MACH defines the character of 
" science "as an economy of thought," 
and he is right ; but we go one step further 
in showing why an economy of thought is 
possible, nay, why it is necessary. Science 
or the economy of thought is conditioned 
by the systematic character of the formal 
sciences. 

The distinction between form and sub- Philosophy 
stance is of such paramount importance of Form, 
that I feel inclined to characterize my con- 
ception of philosophy as "the philosophy 
of form." 

All science consists in describing forms 
and tracing their changes. Matter and 
energy are mere names; they are empty 
words, denoting nothing but the objectivity 
of both things and events. The objectivity 
of things is called "reality" (i. e., thingish- 
ness), the objectivity of events, "actuality," 
which means that something is doing, some- 
thing is going on, there are changes taking 
place. All differences are ultimately dif- 
ferences of form, and all that we do or try 
to do, be it in art, in invention, or in 
morality, is by molding and remolding 
things as well as ourselves. 



PHILOSOPHY AS A SOEXCE. 



Distinction 
between 
form and the 
content of 
form. 



Significance 

ol 
quality. 



The distincticm between fonn and Ae 
contents of form dates bade to Has^cal 
antiquity, to Aristotle and his school, bat 
the contrast has been nnidi misimdcrstood 
through a dualistic interpretatiixi. 

The modem period in the history of 
philosophy begins with Kant, and rightly 
so. The reason of his great preenmiciice is 
exactly due to the fact that he saw tfie 
significance of the contrast between form 
and substance* w*hkh« however* led him to 
the wrong conclusion of Ids *^critical 
idealism/* 

We may look upon SdiiDer and Goedie 
^but especially the latter "^ as prophets of 
tne philosophy of form. In fact, the dassi- 
cal period of Gemian civilization as diarac- 
tensed by the names of these two poets^ 
tv^ther with Lessing, Herder, Beetiwiveii. 
Mozart* etc.. is to a great extent dm to 
the clearness with which tiiese men 
ciate<l the significance of form. 

The |)hik\<ophy of form throws light also 
on the pn^blem of the nature of quality. 
There i^ a ciMnn\on tendency in science to 
kK^k u|H>n its legitimate methods as being 
limitei) to countiixg and measuring, and Ae 
proiH^Hition has been actually made, Aat 
mtaiity i* a inception to be discarded and 
thnt ultimately the solution of all problems 
will alwayj* prove tv^ be a matter of qtan- 
tIticM. This wnceptiou is an error, far it 



INTRODUCTION. 



overlooks the most significant factor of the 
world, quality, which is not, however, an 
inexplicable mystery, for its nature can be 
satisfactorily understood through the philos- 
ophy of form. See my article, "Significance 
of QuaUty," Monist, XV, 375. 



CCIENCE IS originally one and undi- 
^ vided and serves the practical purpose 
of guidance in life. When by a division of 
labor the several sciences originated, there 
remained a field which was common to all 
of them; and this field is the domain of 
the science of the sciences, i. e., of philos- 
ophy. 
The scope of philosophy is threefold : 
First, it investigates the methods of 
science, it explains their origin and justi- 
fies their efficiency. We may call this 
branch of philosophy methodology, which 
necessarily includes a theory of cognition, 
a description of the nature of abstract 
thought and of logic, and a definition of 
truth. 

Secondly, philosophy summarizes the 
assured results of the several sciences which 
would be characteristic of existence. This 
may be called ontology. In other words, 
philosophy attempts to offer a description of 
the nature of being, i. e., a world-concep- 
tion, the essential part of which must be 
a characterization of the soul, of our own 



Scope 

of 

philosophy. 



Methodology 
is the 

economy of 
thought. 



8 



PHILOSOPHY AS A SCIENCE. 



Mysticism 

and 

pragmatism. 



Philosophy 

of 

the future. 



being, in its relation to the entirety of the 
whole, the universe, the All, or, religiously 
speaking, God. 

Thirdly, philosophy applies the truths 
thus established to practical life, a disci- 
pline which might be called pragmatology. 
It includes man's endeavors in the line of 
scientifically guided discoveries and inven- 
tions, sociology, political economy, educa- 
tion, religion and ethics, i. e., the so-called 
applied sciences, the arts, and the science 
of conduct in the broadest sense of the 
word. 

Pragmatology is the purpose of all meth- 
odology and ontology, and so it is the most 
important branch of philosophy, but it 
would be wrong to limit philosophy to it, 
as is done by pragmatists. They scorn 
theory, rationalism, and any methodical 
unification such as is attempted by monism, 
and the result is that they lose themselves 
in mere subjectivism. If the most essential 
element of a philosophy would remain the 
philosopher's subjective attitude constitut- 
ing the personal equation of his mode of 
thinking, a philosophy of science would be 
impossible, and philosophy would sink to 
the level of the poetical effusions of 
mysticism. 

The philosophy of science is not the 
affair of one man, but is being worked out 
in the scientific development of the race. 



INTRODUCTION. 



Most scientists adhere to it unconsciously. 
Often they employ scientific methods in- 
stinctively ; they have been trained in their 
use and rely on them sometimes without 
having investigated their philosophical sig- 
nificance, yet their reliability is not doubted 
and the assured results of the several 
sciences affect the world-conception which, 
by a kind of indefinable consensus, consti- 
tutes the intellectual atmosphere of our 
social life. 



TTHE NEW world-conception, animated 
* by the spirit of science, shows itself in 
the changes that are wrought not only in 
our views of the importance of science, 
but also in practical affairs, in the nature 
and administration of justice, in the edu- 
cation of children, in our judgment con- 
cerning social as well as international af- 
fairs, in the way we consider the occurrence 
of great disasters, such as earthquakes or 
volcanic eruptions, and in many other 
things. The spirit of the Middle Ages, 
with its penal code of barbaric punishments, 
its cruelty in pedagogy, its narrowness in 
nationalism and religion, retreats step by 
step, while truer and broader views that are 
being more and more universally recognized, 
herald the advent of an age of science. 
The duty of the philosopher is not to 
produce an original system of thought, but 



Meliorism 
and the age 
of 
science. 



lO 



PHILOSOPHY AS A SCIENCE. 



Evolution 
of 

scientific 
thought. 



Problems 

wrongly 

formulated. 



to work out a philosophy of objective reli- 
ability. This philosophy is actually dawn- 
ing in the minds of scientific men, and 
through them in the minds of all thinkers, 
finally destined to become a power in the 
life of the multitudes of mankind. 

All my literary work is subservient to 
this, my main purpose, the establishment of 
the philosophy of science, and I endeavor 
to let the heart-pulse of the best philos- 
ophers and scientists of the past, as well as 
of the present, beat in my own thinking, 
i have no desire to start life, and with it 
the evolution of scientific thought, de novo, 
but wish to continue the work of my pred- 
ecessors, to mature thoughts that are only 
half understood, to systematize scattered 
ideals of the significance of science, and to 
render clearly visible the aim toward which 
mankind is tending. 

THERE ARE a number of problems 
* which have been either wrongly formu- 
lated or wrongly answered, sometimes even 
absolutely neglected, and I will here call 
attention to some new solutions which I 
have proposed in contrast to the current 
and apparently well-established views. Al- 
most all of them center in an appreciation 
of the significance of form. 

A right comprehension of the significance 
of form disposes of the metaphysical ques- 



INTRODUCTION. 



II 



tion, Are there things-in'themsehesf It 
shows that things-in-themselves are forms 
in themselves, and these forms in them- 
selves are by no means unknowable. 

The philosophy of form helps us to solve 
a great number of other problems. It leads 
also to a solution of the problem of the 
nature of Grod and of the immortality of 
the soul. There is a deeper and more gen- 
eral truth in Spenser's words, "The soul is 
form and doth the body make," than the 
poet himself was aware. 

THE PHILOSOPHY of form throws 
* light also on Causality, the problem of 
which was pointed out first by Hume and 
taken up, but not correctly solved, by Kant. 
If we bear in mind that causality is nothing 
more nor less than the law of transforma- 
tion, we shall understand that it simply 
formulates the dynamic aspect of what, in 
a static consideration, is known as "the law 
of the conservation of matter and energy." 

Many philosophers who do not under- 
stand the nature of causation confuse the 
terms "cause" and "reason," and speak of 
"first cause" when they mean "ultimate 
reason," and of "final cause" when they 
mean "purpose." 

A cause is an event which produces an 
effect; a reason is an explanation why a 
certain cause (and with it the whole class 



No Things- 
in-them- 
selves. 



Causality 
the law 
of 

transforma- 
tion. 



12 



PHILOSOPHY AS A SCIENCE. 



Causes are 
consecutive ; 
reasons, 
simultaneous. 



Importance 

of 
psychology. 



of causes of the same kind) will, under 
definite conditions, produce its own peculiar 
effect. Causes and effects constitute a 
series of concatenated events. Every cause 
is the effect of a prior cause, and in its 
turn, every effect is or may be a cause 
that produces subsequent eflFects. However, 
reasons are not successive, they are simul- 
taneous ; they are more or less general, and 
we could arrange all of them (supposing 
that we were omniscient) into a system of 
CO- and sub- and super-ordinated descrip- 
tions of facts (so-called truths), which are 
the so-called laws of nature. 

A LL LAWS of nature are really one and 
^^ the same throughout existence, yet we 
must recognize that there are differences 
of conditions, and we can classify different 
kinds of phenomena according to their 
characteristic features into distinct groups. 
One of the most obvious divisions is the 
distinction between organized and unor- 
ganized nature, the latter consisting of the 
purely physical domains of existence, and 
the former comprising all the phenomena 
of life, vegetable and animal, reaching its 
climax in the development of humanity. 

If the whole of existence is one, we can- 
not look upon the development of life, of 
animation, of consciousness and of ration- 
ality as some accidental by-play, but on the 



INTRODUCTION. 



13 



contrary we must regard soul, spirit, mind, 
or whatever we may call it, as the neces- 
sary outcome of the intrinsic nature of 
existence. 

Nevertheless, organized life constitutes a 
domain of its own and within this domain 
the group of psychical phenomena is again 
a province with distinct characteristics of 
its own, which are absent in the domain of 
inorganic nature. 

The attempts to explain psychology from 
physics or chemistry must therefore be 
futile, for the very elements of psychic life 
(the significance of subjective states) are 
not met with in those fields where the ob- 
jective conditions alone (which are always 
matter in motion) are an object of investi- 
gation, viz., in molar mechanics, physics, 
chemistry and electricity. 

A view of the world based alone upon 
physics and chemistry, or in general upon 
the sciences of objective nature, will always 
prove a failure, for it will never explain 
the soul. Thus we must invert the prpcess 
and expect the solution of the world prob- 
lem, not from the lowest forms of existence 
but from its highest efflorescence. We must 
recognize the import of subjectivity which, 
though apparently absent in pure physics, 
exists and reveals itself in the conscious- 
ness of man, the noblest product of organ- 
ized life. 



Organization, 
an intrinsic 
necessity. 



Mental 
phenomena 
contain the 
solution of 
the world- 
problem. 



14 



PHILOSOPHY AS A SCIENCE. 



Test of a 
philosophy. 



Doctrine of 
parallelism. 



Here lies the paramount significance of 
psychology, and we do not hesitate to say 
that the way in which the psychological 
problem is treated is always the best test 
of a philosophy. 

IN PSYCHOLOGY, the doctrine of paral- 
* lelism has been generally accepted, but 
it must not be interpreted in a dualistic 
sense. There are not two separate fac- 
tors, the psychological and the physiolog- 
ical, running parallel to each other, but there 
is one reality which has two aspects — ^thc 
one being the internal or subjective, the 
other, the external or objective. The two 
are as inseparable, and yet different, as the 
internal and the external curves of a circle. 

The character of the subjective domain 
exhibits the phenomena of sentiency, feel- 
ing, awareness, consciousness and self-con- 
ciousness in different degrees, beginning 
with the absolute zero of feeling and rising 
up to the concentrated attention of a ra- 
tional being. 

The character of the objective domain is 
motion, gravity and momentum, chemical 
reaction, heat, electricity, vitalism, physio- 
logical function and the action of premedi- 
tated purpose. The inner aspect of sub- 
jectivity always corresponds to the outer 
aspect of objective events. Both form a 
unit, and are mutually determined, or, prop- 



INTRODUCTION. 



15 



crly speaking, they arc the same in two 
aspects. It is a parallelism of aspects, but 
not a parallelism of two independent reali- 
ties. 

The two aspects are radically different, 
for feeling is not motion, nor is motion 
feeling. The soul is not body, and the body 
is not soul, but they are one, of which 
the soul is the inner, and the body, the 
outer aspect. 

Such is the doctrine of parallelism in its 
monistic interpretation, which, however, 
leaves the question of the nature and origin 
of consciousness open, and here I offer an 
explanation which, briefly stated, is this: 
Every objectivity has its subjective aspect, 
and is possessed of the potentiality of de- 
veloping into actual feeling; but the sub- 
jective interior of purely physical phenom- 
ena is not ensouled with anything like actual 
feeling or awareness, nor of consciousness, 
because its inner commotions or subjective 
states remain isolated. Elements of sub- 
jectivity, so long as they remain isolated, 
are not feelings in the proper sense of the 
word. In order to be actually felt, they 
must internally enter into an interrelation 
so that one subjective element meets an- 
other subjective element; two or several 
elements must co-operate, so as to let one 
communicate with the other. One feels 
while the other is being felt, thus produc- 



Monism 
explains 
parallelism 
as one 
reality, but 
two aspects. 



How 

consciousness 
is 
built up. 



i6 



PHILOSOPHY AS A SCIENCE. 



Unity of 

purpose 

imposes 

unity of 

psychic 

activities. 



Vitality 

and 

organization. 



ing the possibility of an interaction between 
several subjective states among themselves. 
Thereby alone can a state of awareness re- 
sult, and this internal interaction of feelings 
is possible only through organization. 

This explanation tallies with facts estab- 
lished both by biology and by physiology, 
for we know that consciousness is always 
associated with a nervous system originat- 
ing in those organisms which are moving 
about. Stationary organisms have to wait 
for the satisfaction of their needs, but a 
motor-endowed creature is enabled to go in 
search for food. In this way its organs 
learn to cooperate, and this imposes upon 
them unity of purpose. The unity of pur- 
pose produces the unity of the soul. 

The characteristic distinction of living be- 
ings, when compared to physical phenom- 
ena devoid of life, is organization, which, in 
moving creatures, produces a coordination 
of subjective states. Vitality is not a spe- 
cial force or substance, but solely the func- 
tion of organization, yet as such it is a 
phenomenon sui generis and different from 
the forces of physics, chemistry, electricity 
or molar mechanics. 



T^HE TYPICAL feature of organization 

* is the constant change of material which 

takes place in living substance. It is called 

metabolism, and in animal substance con- 



INTRODUCTION. 



17 



sists of a building up or anabolism, and a 
partial breakdown of the energy thus stored 
up, called catabolism. Anabolism is nutri- 
tion; it changes food into living substance, 
a process called assimilation. Catabolism in 
setting energy free, renders motion possible 
and this motion has under certain condi- 
tions its subjective aspect, which means 
that it is accompanied with feeling. 

The partial breakdown of living struc- 
tures called catabolism is not always the 
same but varies in form, depending upon 
the circumstances under which it takes 
place. It is a reaction upon a stimulus, and 
the reactions upon ether waves or light, air 
waves or sound, upon chemical processes 
in the nose and on the tongue, called smell 
and taste, or upon mechanical impacts, 
called touch, are different physiologically 
as well as psychically. 

In other words, the irritation of light 
produces one kind of structural change, 
while the irritations of sound and of touch 
cause other modifications, all of them being 
analogous; the same kind of cause corre- 
sponds to the same kind of physiological 
function, and each function possesses a 
form of its own and is accompanied by 
a feeling peculiar to itself. 

Here the great significance of form for 
the explanation of life and of the soul be- 
comes manifest. The psyche with its men- 



Forms 

and 

functions. 



Feeling 

a product of 

organization. 



i8 



PHILOSOPHY AS A SCIENCE. 



Preservation 
of form 



Memory, the 

preservation 

of 

living forms. 



tality, its reason, its purposes, its ideals, 
and all its religious and moral aspirations 
would not be possible, without a preserva- 
tion of form in organized substance. 

The waste material of a catabolic break- 
down (mostly carbonic acid) is discarded, 
while through the anabolic process of nutri- 
tion the lost elements are again restored 
in the living substance, and this is done in 
such a way as to preserve the structure in 
its minutest detail. Thus the modifications 
produced by the reaction upon the several 
stimuli remain and constitute so-called 
vestigia or traces. In so far as this pres- 
ervation of the form of living substance 
is accompanied by feeling, and as former 
feelings can be revived on the application 
of proper stimuli, it is called memory. 

Memory, as Hering has pointed out, is a 
property common to all living substance ; it 
is the indispensable condition of the de- 
velopment of the soul. The differentiation 
of nerve activity into the senses, with its 
several modes of reacting upon the stimuh 
of the outer world, is due to a specialization 
of the several reactions in different spots; 
and this specialization becomes permanent 
through memory, i. e., a preservation of 
the forms of the several reactions. The 
preservation of form is not so enduring as 
the conservation of matter and energy, but 
it is not less significant. 



INTRODUCTION. 



19 



•yilE MOST important service of mem- 
* ory is the part it plays in building up 
the soul. Memory creates the condition 
which begets the soul and then continues 
to foster its growth by adding and super- 
adding new mental riches to its capacity. 

First of all, memory renders possible 
comparisons between the images of past 
impressions and new sensations. Every 
memory image leaves a trace of its own, 
and a sense-impression of the same kind 
travels on the same path as its forerunner 
and revives its memory, which results in a 
feeling of sameness. The new sensation 
fits into the trace of the old one and is 
felt to be of the same kind. This feeling 
of sameness implies an unconscious act of 
recognition. Thereby the sense-impression 
gains meaning; and sense-impressions of 
the same kind come to represent the ob- 
jects which cause them. 

Here we have the principle from which 
we derive the explanation of the soul, for 
the soul consists of feelings which have 
become representative of things, conditions, 
experiences, etc- In order to solve the 
problem of the origin of the soul we must 
show how sentiency acquires significance. 
Certain feelings come to stand for certain 
objects. They represent them. The living 
ideas of a man are sentiments freighted 



Memory 

the 

soul-builder. 



Recognition 
of 

sameness 
makes 
feelings rep- 
resentative. 



20 



PHILOSOPHY AS A SCIENCE. 



The soul 
is a system 
of 

sentient 
symbols. 



The test 

of 

progress. 



with meaning and the soul is a system of 

sentient symbols. 

This solution looks very simple and it is 
simple, indeed ; but how grand and infinitely 
complicated are the corollaries implied! 
Consider that a symbol, a form endowed 
with meaning, is what it is by its relation to 
an objective reality, which may be a concrete 
object, a condition or a general feature of 
many objects, or a universal truth. Tliere 
are false symbols and there are true sym- 
bols, and these symbols are not merely pic- 
tures of actualities, but also of aims, of 
aspirations, of ends to be attained. They 
have a pragmatic tendency. They possess 
moral or religious values and these valued 
may be true or false. They lead in the 
right or in the wrong direction; they may 
be in agreement with the constitution of 
the All, or they may be, as it were, out 
of tune. They may be more or less an 
incarnation of the world-order which sways 
not only stars and motes, but also guides 
the thoughts and sentiments of man. 

Here we have the test of progress. Prog- 
ress is not, as Spencer says, "a passage from 
the homogeneous to a heterogeneous state," 
it is the realization of truth. Progress 
means growth of soul, and growth of soul 
means growth of truth. The more clearly, 
correctly and completely truth is mirrored 



INTRODUCTION. 



21 



in a man, the higher he ranges in the scale 
of evolution. 

In a certain sense all nature can be called 
alive; everywhere things are active and 
they carry the source of their activity in 
them; but in the narrower sense we mean 
by "life" the phenomena only of organized 
nature, the typical feature of which is 
metabolism. When metabolism is arrested 
organized life ceases, and the body which Death, 
it had built up will be disorganized, i. e., 
it will be left to the play of physical forces 
alone, a state which is called death. 



LJERE WE feel tempted to enter into a 
** discussion of the problem of immor- 
tality, which is of great importance for 
ethics and religion. But it would take too 
much space. We will only say that man's 
life, being a fragment only of a larger de- 
velopment, every individual instinctively 
feels the need of looking beyond the grave. 

We have not of ourselves become what 
we are and our interests are not limited to 
the brief span of our lives. We have a pur- 
pose that lies beyond the grave and this 
truth has in all religions found an appro- 
priate expression in the belief m immor- 
tality. 

Though many erroneous notions are con- 
nected with the several views of the soul 
and its continued existence after death, 



Problem of 
immortality. 



Again the 
significance 
of 
form. 



22 PHILOSOPHY AS A SCIENCE. 

there is a great underlying truth in the be- 
lief in immortality which can be explained 
scientifically as a preservation of form. 

Kant and CONSIDERING the fact that our very 

clearness ^^ souls are form and that all we do in 

of thought. life is forming and being formed, we shall 

be impressed again with the importance of 
form. 

There is no genuine philosophy which 
has not first investigated the nature of form 
and worked a way out into clearness con- 
cerning its significance. The many failures 
of abortive philosophies are mainly due to 
the fact that there are thinkers of ability 
who persistently ignore the lessons of the 
past, and, above all, scorn to learn from 
Kant. A philosophy of science is not 
otherwise attainable than through clearness 
of thought. 

What might stand in the way of a ready 
acceptance of the philosophy of form does 
not lie in the difficulties or intricacies that 
beset its issues, for, on the contrary, the so- 
lutions thus offered recommend themselves 
by their simplicity. Indeed the simplicity 
of the solution is almost puzzling and it is 
disappointing to those who take delight in 
the obscure hazes of occult explanations. 

Man naturally has a hankering after 
mysticism; he loves the chiaroscuro of the 
inexplicable and is disappointed if a cher- 



INTRODUCTION. 



23 



ished self-mystification is dispelled By a 
rational explanation. There are philoso- 
phers who gain great popularity by a shal- 
low obscurity. Their views, which are like 
mud puddles through which every street 
urchin can wade without danger of going 
beyond his depth, acquire through their 
very confusion, the appearance of an un- 
fathomable profundity in the sight of the 
admiring public. This kind of philosophy 
suits the superficial man who does not care 
for scientific accuracy and is satisfied with 
the counterfeit of depth — ^an intricate and 
bewildering confusion of thought which pre- 
vents a clear vision to the bottom of things. 
The difficulties of the philosophy of form 
which originate through a necessity of 
studying the nature of form and formal 
thought, are as great as the difficulties of 
studying mathematics or logic, but no 
greater, and they are overcome by a pains- 
taking exactness. There is, however, an- 
other difficulty which is a matter of attitude 
or judgment. We are apt to underrate a 
simple solution. It is not easy to estimate 
the enormous depth of a clear Alpine lake, 
the bottom of which lies under us and is 
contemplated as through a magnifying glass. 
So It seems to those who first become 
acquainted with the idea of pure form that, 
on account of its crystal clearness, it is 
sheer nothing, without depth, without mean- 



Mysticism 
attractive 
to hazy 
thinkers. 



Simplicity 
like an 
Alpine lake. 



24 



PHILOSOPHY AS A SCIENCE. 



Pure forms 

are 

eternal types. 



The 

philosophy 
of pure form 
the key to 
all problems 
of 
existence. 



ing, and without efficiwicy. And yet what 
a wealth of applications, of possibilities, of 
inexhaustible potentialities ! What looks 
shallow at first sight is in truth possessed 
of an unfathomable profundity. 

It takes a Plato to understand that pure 
forms are eternal types, and that the entire 
system of all formal thoughts (or, to use 
a Platonic expression, of the Logoi) con- 
stitutes a divinity which Philo called "the 
Logos." This Logos conditions the cosmic 
order and creates and governs the universe. 
Pure form looks like a nonentity, and yet 
the laws of pure form are the factors that 
determine existence in all its details. Pure 
forms are superreal. The truth that all 
bodily existence is transient and that it 
cannot be other than transient, is apparent. 
On the other hand, that those norms (the 
purely formal conditions) which constitute 
the laws of nature are wonderful presences, 
or better, omnipresences and eternalities of 
an unfailing efficiency and full of deep sig- 
nificance, is easily understood but not so 
easily appreciated. We are too apt to think 
of pure form as non-existent because it is 
not made of matter. Nevertheless pure 
form is of paramount importance and we 
must comprehend its significance for our 
interpretation of existence. 

The philosophy of pure form gives us 
the key by which we can unlock all the 



INTRODUCTION. 



25 



problems of existence, at least in theory, 
and in cases of practical nivestigation it 
suggests the method by which truth is to 
be attained. 

A PHILOSOPHER must not be a one- 
^^ sided intellectualist. He must bear in 
mind that the noetic operations of man's 
mind are only one feature of his life ; man 
is also endowed with sentiment and above 
all he is an actor, a doer, a worker. Man 
is a struggling creature who must make a 
living ; he is not a mere thinker, his thoughts 
serve the purpose of life; they must be 
applied to the tasks which he has to accom- 
plish. Besides, he delights in giving ex- 
pression to his sentiments by depicting in 
poetry and in art the motives that sway his 
soul. It would be a serious defect in a 
philosophy if it attempted to be purely in- 
tellectual and ignored religion, literature, 
the arts and music. We must cultivate all 
the human aspirations that constitute the 
fullness of man's worth, the faculties of 
the head, the heart and the hand. 

Religion covers practically the same 
ground as philosophy and is in many re- 
spects even to be considered its rival. Like 
philosophy, every religion offers a world- 
conception and applies it to practical life, 
but while in religion, sentiment is for the 



Religion 
and Art. 



Religion 

and 

Philosophy. 



26 



PHILOSOPHY AS A SCIENCE. 



Study of 
comparative 
religions 
an important 
branch of 
philosophy. 



Radical, 

yet 

conservative. 



most part the dominant power, the ultimate 
criterion of philosophy is the intellect. 

The several religions are philosophies of 
continuous historical movements, while 
philosophies might be regarded as the re- 
ligions of individual thinkers. Every re- 
ligion is built up of the thoughts of many 
thinkers as they were understood by the 
people. Those notions that appealed to the 
multitudes in one way or another survived 
and hardened into creeds which operate 
with an unquestioning directness as do the 
instincts in the minds of animals. An ap- 
preciation of religious sentiments, there- 
fore, together with the history of religion, 
especially of Christianity and of compara- 
tive religion, is a highly important branch 
of philosophy. 

The correct method of treating religion 
(so far as I can see) would be a combina- 
tion of the two opposed principles, radi- 
calism and conservatism. I would rigidly 
and fearlessly apply scientific methods to 
religious doctrines, but while it can be fore- 
seen that this will destroy a belief in the 
letter of dogmas, I propose at the same 
time to search for and hold fast to the 
spirit of religion which is the truth con- 
tained in the several religious doctrines. 
Error should be fearlessly pointed out and 
discarded. 

Dogmas are S3mibols and the essential 



INTRODUCTION. 



27 



feature of a symbol is the meaning which 
it conveys. We may be able to forego the 
belief in the letter, but we must not lose 
the spirit; we shall probably be compelled 
to surrender our religious dogmas, but we 
shall need their significance. We must pre- 
serve the seriousness of moral conviction 
and the faithfulness in the performance of 
duty, which has been insisted upon by all 
religions. 

♦ ♦ :|c 

Nor should art be neglected, for art, not 
unlike religion, is a powerful factor in 
man's spiritual life. Art is possessed of a 
deep significance, for every piece of art 
reflects the mind of the artist and with it 
his world-conception. There is no painting, 
no statue, no poem, no song, no symphony, 
which has not back of it a sentiment of the 
All, a cosmology, and in this sense it may 
be said that all art is the expression of a 
philosophy. 

The philosophy of science must encom- 
pass the entire man with all his aspirations, 
and in consideration of it we should not 
only cultivate the taste for art, but also 
bear in mind its philosophical significance. 



Dogmas 
and 
moral 
conviction. 



Art reflects 
the 

world-con- 
ception of 
the times. 



The best evidence that the scientific spirit 
pervades the atmosphere of the present age 
can be seen in the influence which science 
exercises on religion. There it appears as 



Science 

and 

Religion. 



28 



PHILOSOPHY AS A SCIENCE. 



Evidences 
of the 
purification 
of the 
God-idea. 



Biblical Research (sometimes called Higher 
Criticism), in the study of the history of 
Christianity and of other faiths, and in a 
philosophical purification and deepening of 
the God-idea, and it is no accident that I 
have felt constrained to do much work in 
all these fields. A sympathetic reader of 
my books will find that in spite of the great- 
variety of subjects which I have treated, all 
my works constitute an organic whole and 
are subordinate to a general plan which 
attempts to awaken the unconscious in- 
stincts of scientific inquiry and to organize 
them into a consciously apprehended and 
clear conception of their unity, which is 
nothing more nor less than the philoso- 
phy OF SCIENCE. 

Paul Carus. 



On several occasions Dr. Carus has made 
summaries of the tendency and scope of his 
work. One was published under the title, '"Salu- 
tatory," in the January number of The Open 
Court for 1897 (vol. XI), another under the 
title, "A Retrospect and a Prospect," in the 
January number of The Open Court for 1907 
(vol. XXI), republished as an introduction to 
Twenty Years of the Open Court. Another 
similarly comprehensive statement appears in 
the Introduction to Sacred Tunes for the Con- 
secration of Life. The latest one is the Intro- 
duction to this book» pp. 1-28. 



SUMMARIES OF BOOKS 

By 
DR. PAUL CARUS 



I. PHILOSOPHY AND PSYCHOL- 
OGY. 

IV/IONISM AND MELIORISM. Pages, 
*^* 83. Paper, 50 cents (2s. 6cl.). 

A Philosophical Essay on Causality and 
Ethics, which Dr. Carus published soon 
after his arrival in the United States, and 
before he was called to take charge of 
The Open Court* It plainly foreshadows 
his views, which are more fully expressed 
in later publications. 

FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEMS. Third 
* edition, enlarged and revised. Pages, 
xii, 373. Qoth, $1.50 (7s. 6d.). 

The Method of Philosophy as a Syste- 
matic Arrangement of Knowledge. This 
book is a popular treatment of philosophical 
topics, and among them the most important 
is Form and Formal Thought, pointing out 
the contrast between sensation and pure 



A 

preliminary 
statement. 



A 

controversial 
treatment. 



29 



30 SUMMARIES OF BOOKS. 

reason, matter and the inter-relation of its 
component parts. It lays the foundation 
for a comprehension of the significance of 
Form; the arrangement of the order of 
nature, the laws of nature and all that is 
implied thereby, the nature of spirit, of 
ethics, of ideals, of art, and also of causa- 
tion in general. Dr. Cams has charac- 
terized his position in a motto on the title 
The motto. page as follows: 

"Not agnosticism but positive Science, 
Not mysticism but clear thought. 

Neither supernaturalism nor materialism 
But a unitary conception of the world ; 

Not dogma but Religion, 
Not creed but faith." 

Many of these articles are discussions 
which took place in The Open Court, and 
the appendix contains replies to critics of 
different schools, among them agnostics, 
dogmatists, mystics, materialists, and 
others. 

"Reverent, elevated, and comprehensive. . . 
The book is of most excellent spirit and of 
great ability."— P«^/«V Opinion, 

"A good introduction to the study of formal 
philosophy."--r/j^ Scotsman, Edinburgh, 

Free from "^^* ^^"^^ takes seriously one's duty of striv- 

• J. ing after clear, sane, true and vital thinking. 

prejuaice. jj^ seems to be singularly free from prejudice. 

He has not that itch for originality which is the 
bane of too many other system-makers."— C/i«- 
cago Record-Herald, 



PHILOSOPHY AND PSYCHOLOGY. 



31 



THREE PHILOSOPHICAL PAMPH- 
LETS, (a) The Philosophy of the 
Tool. 10 cents (6d.). (b) Our Need of 
Philosophy. 5 cents (3 d.). (c) Science 
a Religious Revelation. 5 icents (3d.). 
Three lectures delivered at Chicago in 
the memorable year (1893) of the World's 
Columbian Exposition, before the Congress 
of Education, the Congress of Philosophy 
and the Parliament of Religion. 



Appeals in 

brief 

form. 



DRIMER OF PHILOSOPHY. Third 
* edition. Pages, vi, 242. Qoth, $1.00 

(Ss.). 

A systematic exposition of a philosophy 
of science based upon critically sifted ex- 
perience. Dr. Carus builds up his philoso- 
phy upon facts. He rejects axioms of any 
kind, even in mathematics. He derives the 
principles from which he builds up the 
formal sciences (mathematics, logic, etc.) 
from experience; discusses the nature of 
causation, the prevalent confusion of the 
notions, cause and reason, the problems of 
teleology and free will, the nature of the 
human mind, perceptions, generalizations, 
ideas, and the continued preservation of 
ideas from generation to generation, closing 
with a discussion of the religious problem. 

"Combines scholarship and original thought 
with an accurate and popular style of writing, 
and the result is a fascinating work upon what 



A systematic 
survey. 



Press 
notices. 



i 



32 



SUMMARIES OF BOOKS. 



Recommended 
to the 
Orthodox. 



An important 
classic trans- 
lated and 
explained. 



most people consider an unusually dry sub- 
ject." — American Israelite. 

"This volume, by one of the deepest thinkers 
and clearest writers of the age, is worthy of 
careful consideration even by the most con- 
servatively orthodox in religion and philosophy." 
— Cumberland Presbyterian. 

"The handiest and most educative, the best 
and brightest discussion of such problems as 
vex the souls of philosophers, accessible to 
English readers."— ^woj Waters, in Watts' 
Literary Guide. 

"This little book is the most readable and 
lucid presentation of a system of philosophy 
that I have ever read." — Paper and Press, 

"While not expressly^ designed for the in- 
struction of beginners in philosophy, its text 
is divested of much of that abstract scientific 
nomenclature so puzzling to the uninitiated, 
while the subject is presented with such sim- 
plicity that its leading idea is gathered at a 
glance." — Harrisburg Telegram. 

"The Primer of Philosophy is the very best, 
if not the only work, in which men and women 
of the world, as well as scholars, will be able 
to find a rational, correct and clear explanation 
of the words and basic principles of philosophy. 
It really deserves its title." — Waco Evening 
News, 

KANT'S PROLEGOMENA TO ANY 
FUTURE METAPHYSIC. Pages, 
301. Cloth, 75 cents, net (3s. 6d., net). 

Convinced of the significance of Kant's 
Prolegomena, Dr. Cams offers a new trans- 
lation of this most important Kantian 
pamphlet, which is practically an explana- 
tion of Kant's philosophy by Kant himself, 



PHILOSOPHY AND PSYCHOLOGY. 33 

setting forth in plain and most uncon- 
ventional language the intention of his 
Critique of Pure Reason. 

Dr. Carus believes that Kant has for- Criticism 
mulated the problem of philosophy cor- of Kant, 
rectly, but that he has not succeeded with 
its solution. Pointing out the errors of 
Kant, which consist in the looseness of the 
use of certain terms, especially the words 
"experience" and "ideal," Dr. Carus builds 
up a foundation for the philosophy of 
science by demonstrating how the formal 
sciences enable us to solve the problems 
of objective reality. 

"I am very much pleased with Kanfs Prole- Opinions. 
gomena, and shall make use of the book with a 
class of about sixty students some time after 
Easter. It is, by all odds, the best book through 
which to appreciate Kant's system." — George 
Duncan, Professor in Yale University. 

"A new translation which has some advan- 
tages of lucidity over the older English versions 
made when Kant's hard terminology had been 
less thoroughly mastered by scholars than it now 
is. . . . It forms an admirable introduction 
to the writings of the founder of modern tran- 
scendentalism, and will prove welcome to stu- 
dents on both sides of the Atlantic." — The Scots- 
man. 

l^ANT AND SPENCER. Pages, loi. 
"■ Cloth, 50 cents, net (2s. 6d., net). 

A study of the Fallacies of Agnosticism. 
Contents: (i) The Ethics of Kant; (2) 



34 



SUMMARIES OF BOOKS. 



Philosophy 
of science vs. 
the philoso- 
phy of 
nescience. 



Opinions. 



Kant on Evolution ; (3) Mr. Spencer's Ag- 
nosticism; (4) Reply to Mr. Spencer's 
Comment. Herbert Spencer strangely mis- 
interpreted Kant and distorted his views 
beyond recognition. The present book is a 
vindication of Kant and a criticism of 
Spencer's philosophy, as well as of the 
theory of agnosticism in general. 

Incidentally we learn something about 
the history of the doctrine of evolution, 
which IS here briefly recapitulated, and we 
have to grant that Kant was a better evo- 
lutionist than Spencer. 

"Dr. Carus certainly convicts Mr. Spencer of 
failing to understand Kant, and makes a posi- 
tive contribution to the broader understanding 
of Slant's doctrine of evolution, as well as to 
his general philosophical significance." — Presby- 
terian and Reformed Review, 

"The reader will find something helpful toward 
the understanding of Kant in this little volume. 
Dr. Carus is a writer who is always interesting, 
because he knows what he wants to say and 
how to say it most directly and plainly." — Ex- 
change, 

•THE SURD OF METAPHYSICS. 
* Pages, vi, 233. 75 cents, net (3s. 6d., 
net). 

An inquiry into the question Are There 
Things-In-Themselvesf This book is not 
metaphysical but antimetaphysical. The 
idea that science and philosophy are 
contrasts still prevails in many circles; 



PHILOSOPHY AND PSYCHOLOGY. 



35 



even among advanced thinkers, and the 
claim is frequently made that philosophy 
leaves a surd, some irreducible element 
analogous to tlic irrational in mathe- 
matics. Dr. Carus stands for the oppo- 
site view. He believes in the efficiency 
of science and to him the true philosophy 
is the philosophy of science. Now, it is 
true that certain methods of logic are in- 
sufficient to reduce our experiences to 
rational concepts, and science in general is 
limited in its various branches to the meth- 
ods employed, but there is no need of as- 
suming, for that reason, that the surd in 
the intellectual realm possesses any real 
objective value, and would render philos- 
ophy ultimately metaphysical or mystical. 

The present volume investigates the na- 
ture of this surd of metaphysics, which so 
far has proved the greatest stumbling block 
of philosophy to scientists. It looms up in 
Kant's philosophy as the "thing-in-itself," 
and is still adhered to in some form or 
another by many prominent thinkers of the 
present day. The author's intention is to 
establish philosophy as a science, and so he 
endeavors to make it the science of the 
sciences. He discusses in the present vol- 
ume the significance which this mysterious 
element has played in the realm of thought, 
and propounds his own views in contradic- 



The surd 

in 

philosophy. 



There are no 

''things-in- 

themselves." 



36 



SUMMARIES OF BOOKS. 



A verse 

from 
Schiller. 



Opinions. 



tion to those of Deussen, Jodl, Mach and 
Max Mflller. 

The aim of the book is to purge philoso- 
phy of the surd which clung to it in the 
days of metaphysicism and prevented its 
development into a philosophy of science. 
The need of this change was felt even a 
century ago by the prophetic poet, Friedrich 
Schiller, who, though an admirer of Kant, 
was impressed with the redundancy of the 
"thing-in-itself" in philosophy, and so he 
wrote the following satirical distich: 



(( 



Since Metaphysics of late 

Without heirs to her fathers was gath- 
ered, 
Here at the auctioneer's are 

Things-in-themselves' to be sold." 



"Filled with clear, wholesome, strong, intel- 
lectual food.'* — Unity, 

"A well-prepared work for the student of 
philosophy. The logic, in the main, is strong 
and convincing, and Dr. Carus's views are ably 
presented and defended." — Bookseller, News- 
dealer and Stationer, 

"Dr. Carus stands for man's deliberate cor- 
respondence with the forces of evolution, and 
sees in his creative power, his practical achieve- 
ments, his addition to usable thought, and in his 
hands' work, his true significance."— CAfVog() 
Tribune, 



PHILOSOPHY AND PSYCHOLOGY. 



37 



•THE SOUL OF MAN. An investiga- 
* tion of the Facts of Physiological and 
Experimental Psychology. Third edition. 
With an Appendix on tiie latest researches 
in Physiology. 182 diagrams. Pages, 
xviii, 482. Price, cloth, $1.50, net (6s., 
net). 

This is a popular exposition of psychol- 
ogy* treating first the philosophical prob- 
lems of the origin of mind, and the rise of 
organized life, together with kindred topics, 
the question of vitalism, feeling and mo- 
tion, the nature of memory, etc. It then 
discusses the physiology of brain-activity 
from the standpoint of evolution, as well 
as comparative anatomy. This part of the 
book is fully illustrated, and affords an 
opportunity for a layman to acquire an 
insight into the physiology of both animal 
and human brain functions in their rela- 
tion to psychical processes. 

Of especial interest may be considered 
the chapter on the "Immortality of the 
Race and the Data of Propagation." It 
contains a new hypothesis of sex-forma- 
tion. Certain observations favor the theory 
that each sex has the tendency to produce 
its opposite, and it seems that if the male 
preponderates, the result will be female, and 
THce versa. For instance, the unfertilized 
queen bee produces drones, but it takes 
fertilization by a drone to produce a queen. 



Origin and 
nature of 
the soul. 



Physiology 
popularized. 




SUMMARIES OF BOOKS. 



Oresimzatkm 



and 



Subjective 
»tateH inter- 
connected* 



The rest of the book is devoted to ^)e- 
dfically psychological chapters, incfaidii^ 
the discussion of facts of modem psychol- 
ogy, sodi as double personality, fajpootism 
and its dangers, dreams and hallucinatioos, 
suggestions, etc 

The reader will be interested in Dr. 
Carus's theory that feeling and conscious- 
ness originate by organization. All exist- 
ence possesses a subjective and an object- 
ive, i. e., an inner and an outer aspect ; but 
so long as the subjectivity of every atom 
remains isolated (as is the case in the purely 
physical world), it cannot develop into 
actual feeling. Organization makes it possi- 
ble that several functions of subjectivity can 
communicate, and thus organized life in 
its lowest stages, even in plants, produces 
irritability ; further, animal life through the 
mechanism of a nervous system (which is 
nothing more nor less than an organ for 
coordinating the intercommunicating func- 
tions of subjectivity), yields that wonderful 
phenomenon of feeling. 

Dim feelings become clear by being com- 
pared to former feelings. Poorly intercon- 
nected irritations remain subliminal and 
develop into consciousness only by coordi- 
nation. Briefly stated, feelings become 
conscious by being felt, and a higher con- 
sciousness is a concentration of feelings 
through attention. 



PHILOSOPHY AND PSYCHOLOGY. 



39 



A step further in the origin of mind is 
made when feelings become representative, 
i. e., when they acquire meaning and when 
sense impressions denote the presence of 
objects. 

Dr. Cams further propounds a new* 
theory of the nature of pleasure and pain, 
rejecting the old notion that pleasure is 
identical with growth, and pain with decay. 
Pleasure is the satisfaction of a want or a 
craving, while pain is due to a disturbance. 
Thus even growth (being a disturbance) is 
no uncommon cause of pain. (Cf. also his 
article in the Monist, VI, 432.) 

The physiologist's attention is called to 
Dr. Carus's theory of the physiological con- 
ditions of consciousness. Dr. Cams claims 
that the cortex is not (as is the current 
view) the seat of consciousness, but a store- 
house of memories. It is the seat of intelli- 
gence, whose functions may or may not be 
accompanied with consciousness. Conscious- 
ness, the function of apprehension, is due to 
a concentration of feeling upon a thought, 
and there are reasons to believe that the 
organ of concentrating attention must be 
sought in the striate body of the mid-brain. 

The conclusion of the book is devoted to 
ethical and religious problems, such as free- 
dom of will and responsibility, the origin 
of death, immortality, the communism of 
soul life, and the soul of the universe. The 



Pleasure 
and pain. 



Organ 
of 



consciousness 



40 



SUMMARIES OF BOOKS. 



Opinion of 

Rabbi 

Hirsch. 



soul of the universe is here identified with 
God, but in one of his later writings Dr. 
Carus proposes a more definite conception 
of God.* 

"A solid addition to the works upon physio- 
logical psychology."— Pu6/tc Opinion. 

"The work of a profound scholar, and yet 
written in language so simple that the youngest 
reader can comprehend it^—Boston Transcript 

"As a lesson in method, let alone their con- 
tents, his works are among the best in their 
field. . . . His religion of the future has in 
very truth all the essentials of the faith which 
alone can win the assent and devotion of the 
thinker. . . . This book must be read and 
reread to be fully appreciated." — Dr, E. G, 
Hirsch, in Reform Advocate, 

"A more enjoyable study we have not had for 
some time than the examination of such an in- 
vestigation of the facts of physiological and 
experimental psychology. The center of the 
universe lies in our own mind, and the well- 
written and beautifully illustrated volume which 
lies before us gives the reader a text-book from 
which he may learn the intricacies of such a 
center. The mentalist has his text-book at last." 
— The Educational Record, Montreal, 

THE FOUNDATIONS OF MATHE- 

* MATICS. A Contribution to the 

Philosophy of Geometry. Pages, 140. 

Cloth, gilt top, 75 cents, net (3s. 6d., net). 

♦See page 55, God, an Enquiry into the 
Nature of Man's Highest Ideals and a Solu- 
tion of the Problem from the Standpoint of 
Science. 




The enormous significance of the formal 
5 makes it desirable that anyone who 
attempts to philosophize should understand 
the nature of mathematics. Plato was con- 
vinced that knowledge of the science of 
form was indispensable, so he wrote over 
his school the injunction that no one not 
versed in geometry should enter. 

The need of a philosophical basis of 
mathematics appears in the doubts which 
beset the axiom of parallels. In the present 
book the author discusses, first, the history 
of the notion of axioms and especially the Problem 
axiom of parallels ; the attempts at solving of the 
the problem by Gauss, Riemann, Lobats- axiom. 
chevsky, Bolyai, Grassmann and others; 
and then enters into a discussion of the 
philosophical basis of mathematics, the 
problems of the a priori, of anyness, of 
space, the uniqueness of pure space, mathe- 
matical and physiological space, etc. He 
shows that mathematics does not start from 
nothing, as is often assumed ; it excludes 
only particularity and retains logical con- 
sistency as well as the idea of pure activ- 
ity. It is shown how in building up pure 
space, the idea of a straight line neces- 
sarily originates and why it is indispensable. 

The nature and the significance of the a Mysticism 
priori are set forth so as to dispel all mys- and the 
ticism that sometimes adheres to the idea, o priori. 
and the new term "anyness" contributes 



42 SUMMARIES OF BOOKS. 

not a little to throw light on the nature 
of mathematical reasoning. 
The straight Among other important topics discussed 

line. in this book may be mentioned the author's 

method of explaining the nature of straight 
lines, the plane and the right angle as 
"even boundaries;" his construction of tri- 
dimensional space is created from what he 
calls "the scope of motion in infinite direc- 
tions." While touching upon the subject 
of imaginary spaces, the conception of a 
four-dimensional space is made thinkable by 
the help of three mirrors placed at right 
angles. 
The God The chapters on the Superreal, Discrete 

of Units, Continuum, Infinitude, and the Epi- 

Mathematics. logue proclaiming the God of Mathematics, 

will be of interest to any thoughtful reader. 

"It will be worth the while of any think- 
ing man to read this book with some pains- 
taking Take it all in all, there has been 

no small book recently published more provo- 
cative of thought along certain directions than 
this." — Chicago Daily News. 

"For those who are interested in mathe- 
matics, that is, in the philosophy of mathe- 
matics, this book will come as a delight. It 
is written in delightfully clear and understand- 
able manner. — Business Philosopher, 

"An exceedingly interesting book. It is not 
above the comprehension of the high school 
teacher." — School Science, 

"The treatment of the subject is clear. To 



PHILOSOPHY AND PSYCHOLOGY. 



43 



the student of mathematics it will prove stimu- 
lating." — Boston Transcript. 

"The volume compels admiration of this mod- 
ern author's breadth of knowledge. He is al- 
ways modern, practical and, in the best sense, 
apologetic. The catholicity of his mind enables 
him to speak to a very large audience."— Lon- 
don Expository Times. 

"The Foundations of Mathematics, by Paul 
Cams, reflects the wide reading, the scholar- 
ship and clearness of exposition of its author." 
— Religious Education. 

"Dr. Cams discusses the history of mathe- 
matics interestingly, showing that, in spite of 
modern innovations, Euclid's claims remain un- 
shaken." — Army and Navy Journal. 



VjT/HENCE AND WHITHER? An In- 
^ quiry Into the Nature of the Soul, Its 
Origin and Destiny. Pages, viii, 218. 
Price, cloth, 75 cents, net (3s. 6d., net). 

This little book treats of the central prob- 
lems of all religion; the nature of the ego; 
the origin, development, and destiny of the 
human personality; spiritual heredity; the 
dissolution of the body and the preservation 
of the soul; the nature of human immor- 
tality; mankind's ideals; the rational basis 
of ethics, etc., all from the standpoint of 
modern psychology and biology. It teaches 
an immortality consisting in the survival of 
our ideas and aspirations which are the quin- 
tessence of our very soul. The author takes 
pains to prove that this is a true immor- 
tality and not mere fiction. All doctrines 



Whence do 
we come? 



Immortality 



\ 



44 



SUMMARIES OF BOOKS. 



Symbols 
are but 
makeshifts. 



Is life ^ 
worth living? 



of immortality taught in allegory or symbol 
are but makeshifts to express for people 
untrained in philosophical thought this 
grandest of all religious truths. 

See also Fechner's View of Life After 
Death. Monist, XVI, 84. The Soul in 
Science and Religion. Monist XVI, 218. 

"Dr. Cants answers the question, 'Is Life 
Worth Living?' very fully and satisfactorily. 
The whole is a comprehensive and helpful treat- 
ise."— /owrna/ of Education, Boston, 

"Full of stimulating thoughts." — Dominion 
Presbyterion, 

"Reverent and actuated by noble purpose." — 
Congregationalist. 

"There are many fine passages in this book, 
and the general trend of the argument is unde- 
niably sound." — Literary Guide. 



A controver- 
sial 

treatment 
of ethics. 



ETHICS AND RELIGION. 

THE ETHICAL PROBLEM. Three 
'*' Lectures on Ethics as a Science. Sec- 
ond edition, including a discussion of the 
subject by William M. Salter, John Mad- 
dock, F. M. Holland, Prof. Friedrich Jodl, 
Dr. R. Lewins, Prof. H. Hoffding, Prof. 
L. M. Billia. Pages, 351. Cloth, $1.25 
(6s. 6d.). 

The Ethical Problem consists of three 
lectures, delivered before the Society of 
Ethical Culture at Chicago, criticizing the 
attitude of the Society. Dr. Carus beUeves 



ETHICS AND RELIGION. 



45 



that pure ethics, which means ethics not 
based on either philosophy or religion, has 
no existence. For ethics is always based upon 
a world-conception and from this derives 
its character. Different ethical systems al- 
ways presuppose different philosophies. 

Hedonism, which is based on the princi- 
ple that that is moral which will bring 
about a maximum of pleasure for the great- 
est number of people, is, closely considered, 
a denial of ethics. The pursuit of happi- 
ness has nothing to do with morality, and 
if there were no duty except to bring about 
happiness, ethics would be an illusion. 

The publication of these addresses elicited 
a number of discussions with Rev. William 
M. Salter and other men interested in the 
philosophy of ethics, among them Prof. 
Harold Hoffding of Copenhagen, Prof. 
Friedrich Jodl of Vienna, Dr. Robert 
Lewins, the English philosopher of solips- 
ism. Dr. L. M. Billia of Turin, Italy, etc. 
The book contains also discussions of the 
views of Goldwin Smith, Gustav Fechner, 
H. Sedgwick, John Stuart Mill, Rosmini, 
etc. 

"One cannot help admiring the calmness and 
the loftiness of tone with which the discussion 
is carried on." — Presbyterian Review. 

"It would be quite impossible for the author 
to have crowded more thought and suggestive- 
ness within the same compass. . . . It is a 



Pursuit of 
pleasure is 
not morality. 



Important 
discussion. 



46 



SUMMARIES OF BOOKS. 



fresh and up-to-date volume." — Methodist Epis-' 
copal Magazine and Review. 

"Thoughtful and suggestive." — The Evangelist. 

"Most stimulating reading." — Presbyterian and 
Reformed Review. 



The State a 

superpersonal 

organism. 



A wholesome 
warning. 



THE NATURE OF THE STATE. 
*" Cloth, 50 cents, net (2s. 6(1., net). 

The Nature of the State is a small 
treatise, which conveys an important truth, 
throwing light not only on the character 
of communal life, but also on the nature of 
man's soul. It proves the significance of 
the social interrelations, and refutes the 
errors of individualism. 

It contains chapters with the following 
titles: Does the State Exist? Was the 
Individual Prior to Society? The State a 
Product of Natural Growth. The Au- 
thority of the State and the Right to Revo- 
lution. The Modern State Based on 
Revolution. Treason and Reform. 

"A timely aid to dissipate error and help to 
the realization of the genuine meaning of the 
state. Dr. Carus has treated the matter in a 
masterly and convincing way." — The Call, San 

Francisco. 

"As full of reason as an tgg is of meat." — 
Wade's Fibre and Fabric. 

"The exposition is clear and the style inci- 
sive. The warning is also wholesome, that a 
man carefully consider what the State signifies 
before he inveighs against its authority or ex- 
poses himself as a vainglorious prophet of er- 
ror." — New York Ethical Record. 



ETHICS AND RELIGION. 



47 



'The positions taken are admirable and are 
admirably maintained, especially as against the 
individualistic conception of Hobbes and Rous- 
seau." — Princeton Theological Review, 

QUR CHILDREN. Hints from Prac- 
^^ tical Experience for Parents and Teach- 
ers. Pages, 207. $1.00, net (4s. 6ci., net). 
In this little book the author gives an 
account of experiences with his own chil- 
dren, and offers suggestions to educators. 
Upon the whole his advice is based upon 
the principle don't say don't; he prefers to 
use the positive instruction of saying "do." 
Education should be guidance; there is no 
need of breaking the will. Here are a few 
of the chapter headings: First Steps; 
Parenthood; Treatment of a Naughty 
Child; Do Not Punish; Direct or Divert, 
but Do Not Suppress ; The Use of Money ; 
Counting; Facts, not Fancy; Foreign Lan- 
guages ; Mathematics ; Music in Education ; 
Santa Claus. 

"Brightly written, broad-minded, instructive, 
this book deserves serious perusal and praise." — 
Chicago Record-Herald, 

"Our Children has a value which it is difficult 
to exaggerate. The strong common sense of 
the book as a whole can better be judged from 
an extract than from any praise of it, however 
particularized. ... It is difficult to conceive 
of anything coming up in relation of parent or 
teacher to a child which does not find discus- 
sion or suggestion in this compact and helpful 



Treatment 
of a 
naughty 
child. 



48 SUMMARIES OF BOOKS. 



little book. It will be an aid to parents and 
teachers everywhere — ^an education for them no 
less than for the chiid.'*--Chicago Daily News, 
"We feel certain that any parent who thought- 
fully reads and studies this book will be richly 
paid, and if the readers be parents with grow- 
ing children they will keep the book by them 
for frequent consultation, not for iron rules, but 
for sympathetic suggestion." — Commercial News, 
Danville, III 

"From my own personal point of view I can 
only welcome this volume in our pedagogical 
literature and express the hope that it may be- 
come a household book in the library of every 
parent and teacher." — M. P. E, Groszmann, Ph.D,, 
Director of Grossmann School for Nervous Chil- 
dren. 
A "The book is delightful and most helpful. I 

mother's ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ much pleasure and profit, then re- 

• read most of it aloud to my husbtind. The 

^^^* suggestions for discipline were exactly what I 

needed for our second boy; he had always been 
a great problem, but I was too stupid and pos- 
sibly too near him to solve it for myself. The 
chapter on The Naughty Child' seems to have 
done this, and I feel as if a wonderful thing 
had happened. . . . Our neighborhood club 
of women, mothers of fifty-one children, are 
reading Our Children, a chapter at a time, at 
club meetings and finding it so helpful. It is 
such good sense." — Extract from letters from a 
young mother in Oklahoma. 

"Little things are recommended that will ap- 
peal to the child's understanding and add to his 
interest in his work." — Cleveland Plain Dealer. 

"Its author has given to the world a careful, 
loving, thoughtful set of rules which may be 
used with profit in the bringing up of the 
young." — The Mantel, Tile and Grate Monthly. 



ETHICS AND RELIGION. 49 

THE RISE OF MAN. A Sketch of the 
** Origin of the Human Race. Illus- 
trated. Pages, 97. Boards, cloth back, 75 
cents, net (3s. 6d., net). 

The subject of this book is anthropo- 
logical, but the author's interest is ulti- 
mately concentrated in the religious prob- 
lem underlying the questions here presented. 
Dr. Carus upholds the divinity of man from Man's 
the standpoint of evolution. Man's physical divinity is 
origin does not disprove that his soul has the natural 
more and more become an incarnation of aim of life. 
God in the sense that man's reason is an 
echo of the world-order, and so man (or, 
generally speaking, a rational being) is the 
natural aim of life. In the second chapter 
the idea of evolution as an cpigenesis, not 
as a process of evolving, is discussed. The 
chapters on the anthropoid apes and on 
primitive man are richly illustrated with 
special consideration of the Neanderthal 
man and Du Bois's pithecanthropoid. 

The concluding chapters, ''Civilization 
and the Race" and "The Triumph of the 
Best," discuss the moral problems of 
anthropogenesis. 

"Might be called a primer in evolutionary the- 
ory. It is clearly written and excellently illus- 
trated." — Cleveland Plain Dealer, 

"Dr. Carus has a deep reverence for the man- 
ifestation of God in created things, and nowhere 
is it more in evidence than in his graceful treat- 



so 



SUMMARIES OF BOOKS. 



Sermons by 
a man who 
believes in 
science. 



Broadly 
Catholic. 



it 



n 



it 



ft 



>» 



» 



ment of this subject"— ry^r Publishing Com- 
pany, Ann Arbor, Mich, 

LJOMILIES OF SCIENCE. Pages x, 
* * 317. Cloth, gilt top, $1.50 (7s. 6d.). 
This is a collection of short sermons from 
the standpoint of a religion which recog- 
nizes no religious doctrine that is incon- 
sistent with the truths taught by science. 
Among the topics presented we mention: 
Is Religion Dead?" "Living the Truth, 
Is God a Mind ?" "The Religion of Joy, 
The Uberal's Folly," "Faith and Doubt, 
"The American Ideal." 

"They are written in a direct and interesting 
style, generally profound in thought, and elicit 
the attention of the intelligent reader." — Re- 
formed Church Review. 

"Many of these articles might appear without 
criticism in the most orthodox church weeklies 
and magazines. One in particular, on The 
Hunger After Righteousness,' might be read 
from any Christian pulpit as a sermon, while 
the papers on 'Sexual Ethics/ 'Monogamy and 
Free Love' and 'Morality and Virtue" will aston- 
ish the very large class who imagine that rejec- 
tion of dogma tends to subversion of morals. 
This is a good book for those who want to 
know what unbelievers really believe." — Book 
News, 

"Their author is evidently animated by a 
broadly catholic spirit, is widely read, and writes 
in the interests of higher morality." — Milwaukee 
Sentinel, 

"What Dr. Cams says on ethical subjects, 
though containing nothing particularly new, will 



ETHICS AND RELIGION. 



51 



find an echo in the hearts of good men of every 
creed. He is wholly uninfected with the social- 
istic heresies now so widely prevalent, and he 
sternly rebukes those free-thinkers who regard 
morality with indifference and scoff at its re- 
quirements. . . . As an example of existing 
tendencies, as well as by its moral earnestness, 
this book will interest the reader." — Science. 

"While these essays are opposed to some of 
the teachings of dogmatic Christianity, they are 
full of the spirit of the highest Christian mo- 
rality and are not in any true sense antagonistic 
to religious faith. They are constructive rather 
than destructive." — Review of Reviews, New 
York. 

"It has all the genuine life and spirit of Chris- 
tianity, but is free from the dogmatic theology 
which is a stumbling block to so many intelli- 
gent believers. . . . Everyone who is inter- 
ested in the great problem of life, death and 
immortality should read this volume and pon- 
der over its practical suggestions." — Daily Her- 
ald, Norristown, Pa. 

"It is always a pleasure to read the utter- 
ances of the author of this book when religion 
and morality are under consideration. He is so 
frank in stating his own views and so utterly 
free from harshness or uncharitableness in stat- 
ing his opposition to the views of others as to 
be able to carry any reader along without per- 
sonal irritation. . . . We are attracted by 
the strong moral and spiritual tone in the book, 
and find a reverence and devotion here for 
things of the spirit, which do not exist in 
some of our so-called religious writers. . . . 
It will stir many a soul to a higher life." — 
Public Opinion. 



Opposed to 
dogma, but 
Christian 
in spirit. 



^ 



52 



SUMMARIES OF BOOKS. 



The 
new 
orthodoxy. 



The 

Religious 

Parliament. 



THE DAWN OF A NEW RELIGIOUS 
ERA AND OTHER ESSAYS. Pages, 
vi, 145. Cloth, 50 cents, net (2s. 6d., net). 
The author gave up the religious con- 
viction which had become dear to him in 
his youth because he found it untenable 
under the strain of scientific critique. He 
first modified his faith, and finally sur- 
rendered everything that could be defended 
only by the claim of tradition or special 
revelation, thereby he reached the bottom 
rock and built up a new faith on the eternal 
truths that can be proved by science, and 
are verifiable in our daily experience. This 
is the constructive part of his work, which 
makes him the most conservative of radicals. 
He is vigorously opposed to agnosticism and 
all equivocation as well as indifference, 
building up a new orthodoxy of scientific- 
ally tenable truths. 

This new religious era, which is here 
vividly described, had its dawn in the 
spirit that made the Religious Parliament 
possible. 

This little volume contains also a critical 

analysis of Professor Romanes's "Thoughts 

on Religion," discussing the reasons for his 

allied conversion to Christianity shortly 

before his death; and finally an essay on 

The New Orthodoxy." Instead of de- 

otmcing orthodoxy as is now customary, 

>r. Cams defends the ideal of having the 



ETHICS AND RELIGION. 53 



right faith and proposes to develop from 
the old orthodoxy a new orthodoxy which 
can stand the test of science. 



THE RELIGION OF SCIENCE. Pages, 
*' vi, 145. Cloth, 50 cents, net (2s. 6d.). 
Religion should be able to stand the test 
of scientific critique. That religion which 
contains no presumptions incongruous with 
the verified truths of science alone fulfills 
all demands. The present volume is an The 
attempt to outline the doctrines of a relig- sanctity of 
ious conviction, whose ideals of God, soul, scientific 
immortality, together with its moral aspira- truth, 
tions, are tenable before the tribunal of 
science. 

"The best and briefest possible popular ex- 
position of the scientific attitude toward the re- 
ligious sentiment that we have read." — New 
England Magazine, 

"*The Religion of Science* is, in its way, a 
masterpiece. Its author is unique, interesting 
and suggestive as a thinker. We may not, we 
do not, agree with his conclusions, but we ad- 
mire his force, originality and independence." — 
Boston Daily Traveler. 

"It is one of those helpful books which, in- 
stead of repudiating man's part, sneering at his 
religious history, and with grotesque and nar- 
row bigotry more intolerable than that which it 
scorns, renouncing the hard-earned wealth of 
human experience and striving and martyrdoms, 
rather enters joyfully into the spirit of tiiat 



54 



SUMMARIES OF BOOKS. 



« 



Blessed is 
he who 
trusts in 
the truth." 



past and, learning its wisdom, goes forward in 
the strength of it to new positions of security 
and enlightenment." — Rev, Robert D. Towne, 

"With much that he says we fully agree, and 
we respect the moral earnestness with which he 
discusses the problems of life and duty. . . . 
We have read his book with interest, and we 
cordially echo the sentiment he expresses that 
'blessed is he who trusts in the truth, who 
hearkens to its behests, and leads a life in 
which obedience to truth is exemplified.*" — Sci- 
ence, 



Entheism. 



XHE IDEA OF GOD. Fourth edition. 
'*' Pages, 32. Paper cover, 15 cents (pd.). 
This pamphlet is a lecture delivered be- 
fore the Ethical Culture Society in Chi- 
cago long before the author published his 
more comprehensive exposition on his solu- 
tion of the problem of God. It contains the 
following chapters: The Nature of Ideas, 
The Ethnology of the Word God, also the 
Hebrew names of God, the Reality of Ab- 
stract Ideas, the Different Conceptions of 
God, Entheism as a Monistic Conception of 
God, and a conclusion on the Universality 
of God. 



"A wonderful little book . . . clear, log- 
ical and scientific. . . . No Christian should 
fail to read it."— Cwrr^n/ Events, 



it 



'An effort to purify our 'Idea of God,' that it 
may be greater, sublimer and more awe-inspir- 
ing to future generations than it has ever been 
yet." — Literary World, London. 



ETHICS AND RELIGION. 



55 



pOD: AN INQUIRY Into the Nature 
^^ of Man's Highest Ideal and a Solution 
of the Problem from the Standpoint of 
Science. Pages, iv, 245. Boards, cloth 
back, $1.00 (4s. 6d.). 

The God-conception here presented is 
that of the God of Science, not of nescience. 
The author combats agnosticism and the 
God preached is not an unknowable being 
whose existence cannot be proved and 
whose nature is a logical impossibility. 
The God of Science is that principle which 
constitutes the cosmic order of natural law, 
and which, in the religious development of 
mankind, is discovered as the authority of 
conduct. He is a God whose existence 
even the atheist cannot deny. 

One reader who looks upon religion as 
a huge aberration of the human mind said 
to the author: "People will say that the 
book is written by an atheist," to which the 
author replied: "I would make no objec- 
tion if they only modify the statement by 
saying, 'Written by an atheist who loves 
God.' " 

The author claims that his God is the 
only true God, and that other God-concep- 
tions, especially the traditional views of the 
churches, are only surrogates, which did 
service so long as the truth was not yet 
forthcoming. 

The author calls this new and scientific 



The 
God of 
science. 



"An atheist 
who loves 
God.' 



ft 



56 



SUMMARIES OF BOOKS. 



"Theonomy" 
and 

"nomothe- 
ism. 



doctrine of God "theonomy/* which bears 
the same relation to theology as does 
astronomy to astrology. 

This view is not the old pantheism, for 
God is not identified with the All; God is 
omnipresent in nature (a view which is 
called "entheism"), but for all that he is 
different from nature. He is not the total- 
ity of existence, but its norm (or notnos), 
forming, directing and determining all 
things, and so this God-conception may ap- 
propriately be called "nomotheism." 



Rev. 

James 

Hastings 



'Taul Carus is a clear thinker. His book 
is stimulating. We have read every word of 
it with unflagging interest. It helps one greatly 
in thinking about the mystery of all mysteries, 
the mystery of God." — Universalist Leader, 

"A clear statement of a modem view which 
is neither pantheistic nor personal." — Religious 
Education, 

"Dr. Carus's work on 'God' is one of the 
finest and most helpful books on the subject 
we have seen. It is written in a clear, force- 
ful style, and in a broad, sympathetic spirit. 
Every person struggling with intellectual doubt 
and uncertainty should get a copy. It is illu- 
minating." — FelloTVship, 

"At the office of The Open Court in Chicago, 
Dr. Paul Carus, the indefatigable and the 
brave, has published five volumes together. 
Five volumes of most unmistakably religious 
interest, and each vying with the other in 
independence. This is the first article in the 
creed of Dr. Carus — ^independence. Tradition is 



ETHICS AND RELIGION. 



57 



nothing, and the idea which so irresistibly 
sent Newman into the Roman Church, the 
idea that 'the whole world' cannot be wrong, 
is pure heresy to Dr. Paul Carus and to those 
who write for him. The 'whole world* is more 
likely to be wrong than not. The 'whole world' 
almost always has been wrong. But, right or 
wrong, the 'whole world' is nothing to Dr. 
Carus. Let every man be fully persuaded in 
his own mind." — Rev, James Hastings, in the 
Expository Times. 



Compared 
with 
Cardinal 
Newman. 



HISTORY OF RELIGION. 

THE HISTORY OF THE DEVIL. 
*' And the Idea of Evil from the Earliest 
Times to the Present Day. Printed in two 
colors, from large type, on fine paper. 
Bound in cloth, illuminated with cover 
stamp from Dore. Five hundred 8vo 
pages, with 311 illustrations in black and 
tint. Price, $6.00 (30s.). 

Beginning with prehistoric Devil-worship 
and the adoration of demon gods and mon- 
ster divinities, the author surveys the 
ancient beliefs of the Summero-Accadians, 
the Persians, the Jews, the Brahmans, the 
Buddhists, the early Christians and the 
Teutonic nations. He then passes to the 
demonology of the Middle Ages, the Ref- 
ormation, and Modern times, discussing the 
Inquisition, witchcraft, and the history of 
the Devil in verse and fable. 

Though the problem of evil is thus 



Idea of 
evil in 



• * , 



antiquity 



S8 SUMMARIES OF BOOKS. 

treated in its historical phase, the main pur- 
port of the book is philosophical, pointing 
out that the contrasts, good and evil, are 
the realities of life, and so the ideas, God 
and Satan, stand for actual facts. Though 
there is no Devil with horns and hoofs, as 
represented in mediaeval folklore, he is a 
real presence in the life of man which has 
to be reckoned with. In this sense, Dr. 
Carus quotes Goethe's quatrain on the Evil 
One: 

Goethe's "You have the Devil underrated, 

quatrain I cannot yet persuaded be! 

on the A fellow who is all-behated 

Evil One. Must something be." 

"It is seldom that a more intensely absorbing 
study of this kind has been made, and it can 
be safely asserted that the subject has never be- 
fore been so comprehensively treated. . . . 
Neither public nor private librarian can afford 
to be without this book, for it is a well of in- 
formation upon a subject fascinating to both 
students and casual readers." — Christian Israel- 
ite. 

"The work is a triumph of the printers' art, 
having more than 300 illustrations of the rarest 
and most curious religious deities, good and 
bad. For an interesting and instructive volume 
on demonology. Dr. Paul Carus* work surpasses 
anything we have ever seen." — Pacific Medical 
Journal. 

"The author has shown great diligence in 
gathering illustrative material, and it is doubt- 
ful if any such collection of ancient and mod- 
em, quaint and curious, picturesque and fright- 



HISTORY OF RELIGION. 



59 



ful pictures relative to the subject has been 
before offered to English readers."— T/r^ DiaL 

"We have several hours' reading here, and it 
is made the pleasanter by a profusion of grue- 
some pictures — ^pictures of the devil in all his 
shapes and of the devil's wonderful ways with 
his victims and votaries. The book as a book is 
charming, as charming as a book about the 
devil could be." — Expository Times, London. 

"The pictorial illustrations of this subject 
from earliest Egyptian frescoes, from pagan 
idols, from old black-letter tomes, from, quaint 
early Qiristian sculpture, down to the model 
pictures of Dor6 and Schneider, add greatly to 
the value of the book." — M. E, Magazine and 
Review. 

ADDITIONAL ARTICLES ON THE DEVIL. 

The Reality of the Devil. With Illustra- 
tions. Open Court, XIX, No. 595, 
page 717. 

Healing by Conjuration in Ancient Baby- 
lon. A correction of the interpretation 
given in The History of the Devil, pp. 
43 and 46. Open Court, XXIII, 65. 

Indian Chieftain's Story, An. Open Court, 

XV, 376. 

THE STORY OF SAMSON. And Its 
* Place in the Religious Development of 
Mankind. 80 illustrations. Pages, 183. 
Comprehensive index. Boards, $1.00, net 
(4s. 6d.,.net). 

The figure of Samson finds its prototype 
in those traditions of all primitive hislorical 
peoples which relate to a solar deity. Dr. 



Quaint 
pictures of 
the devil in 
mediaeval 
folklore. 



Samson, 
a prototype 
of 
Christ. 



6o 



SUMMARIES OF BOOKS. 



Solar heroes 

and 

the zodiac. 



Cams believes that genuine tradition, no 
matter how mythological, is more conserva^ 
tive than is at first apparent. Though the 
biblical account of Samson's deeds, like 
the twelve labors of Heracles, is the echo 
of an ancient solar epic which glorifies the 
deeds of Shamash in his migration through 
the twelve signs of the zodiac, there may 
have been a Hebrew hero whose deeds re- 
minded the Israelites of Shamash, and so 
his adventures were told with modifications 
which naturally made the solar legends 
cluster about his personality. 

The main significance of the Samson 
story, however, consists in the important 
fact that Samson is the prototype of 
Qirist; and this leads to a discussion of 
the stories of gods who die and rise to 
life again. 

Comparisons are drawn between Samson 
on the one hand, and Heracles, Shamash, 
Melkarth, Siegfried and, ultimately, Christ 
on the other. The appendix contains a 
controversy with Mr. George W. Shaw, in 
which is discussed at some length the rela- 
tion between myth and history. 



Samson 

and 

Christ. 



"Charmingly printed and copicmsly illustrated." 
— Picayune, 

"The discussion is learned and in good spirit." 
— Watchman, 

"This beautifully illustrated book abounds in 
parallels to the Samson Qtory from other liter- 



atures than the Hebrew, and sets forth the un- 
historical character of the story as a sun-myth. 
The view is not new, but is more fully pre- 
sented here than elsewhere."— Bit JiVai World. 

THE BRIDE OF CHRIST. A Study in 
* Christian Legend Lore. 80 illustra- 
tions of reproductions of famous paintings. 
Pages, vii, in. Parchment boards, doth 
back, 75 cents {3s. 6d.), 

The legend of St. Catharine, the bride of 
Christ, though once very popular, is almost 
forgotten now. The Puritan spirit, so 
powerful among Protestants, which wants 
religion pure and simple, without romance 
and sometimes even without the adornment 
of art, has affected even Roman Catholics, 
and yet the legend is full of charm and is 
apt to prove fascinating even to the un- 
believer. 

Though the legend is neglected, the idea 
of a hride of Christ still lives even in 
Protestant hymns, where following the 
precedent of St. Paul and the traditions of 
the mystics, the bride represents either the 
church or the soul. 

The story of the bride of Christ possesses 
an additional interest to the student of 
religion who is able to trace its history and 
compare it with its pagan prototypes. This 
is done in the present book and it is done 
with an appreciation of the rehgious senti- 
ment that produced the legend and inspired 



St. Catharine 
and 
mystic 
marriage. 



Pagan 
Prototypes. 



62 



SUMMARIES OF BOOKS. 



innumerable artists to give a worthy pres- 
entation of this conception of ideal woman- 
hood. 



Parallel 
Christian 
and pagan 
legends 
and symbols. 



"Dr. Cams, in his numerous writing, is fond 
of running parallels between Qi'nstian and 
pagan legends and symbols; and he is busy 
in that sense in this exquisite work. 

"The splendid reproductions of ancient statu- 
ary and decorations, and of the old masters' 
pictures, are truly delightful." — The Coming 
Day, London. 

"Do not lose sight of Dr. Paul Cams. Through 
devious and yet delightful ways he leads us, 
always illuminating the path by means of the 
most charming illustrations, and he brings us 
to rest at last in a thankful contemplation of 
the peace which the mystical love of Christ 
was able to bring to the devout saints of the 
early ages of the Cross." — Expository Times, 
London. 

"The St. Catharine legends grew to their 
completest proportions during the age of ex- 
aggerated chivalry, so that the earlier Christian 
symbol of the Bride as the Church, finally de- 
veloped into a mystic marriage with the spir- 
itualized soul of a pure saint, Catharine mean- 
ing purity. The book is beautifully illustrated 
with one hundred and six reproductions from 
the old masters, who have painted the subject." 
— Christian Advocate. 

"In The Bride of Christ Paul Carus adds 
another to his series of pleasantly written, well 
illustrated studies in comparative religions. 
These studies are not designed for critical 
study, but rather for a cultivated populace, 
although the popular style does not detract 
from the force with which the central theme 
is set forth."--CAica^o Record-Herald. 



"A curious byway of religious folklore is 
explored in an interesting manner by Dr. Cants 
in this volume. Many interesting pictures il- 
lustrate Dr. Cams' stimulating text." — Boston 
Herald. 

•There is scarcely a gieat artist of the fif- St. Catharine 
teenlh and sixteenth centuries who has not :„ «-* 
painted a "St. Catharine' or a 'Mystic Mar- "' ■"''- 
riage." The history of the legend is full of 
interest, and Dr. Carus traces it from its 
most ancient pagan origin through its varied 

forms of religious sentiment. The symbolism 

of the union of the soul with its Savior runs 
through all the varied forms of this legend 
and makes it one of unusual sweetness." — 
Modem Miracles. 

'THE PLEROMA. An Essay on the 
■*■ Origin of Christianity. Pages, 150. 
Cloth, $1.00 (4s.). 

Christianity has become the religion of 
the civilized worid and mankind dates a 
new era with the birth of its founder, Jesus 
Christ. As in all religions, its origin has 
been attributed to a supernatural revelation, 
and opinions vary greatly as to its charac- 
ter, its worth, and the desirability of adher- 
ing to its tratlhions. The present book is 
a comparatively short treatise, which shows 
in terse outlines how Christianity naturally 
and necessarily developed as the inevitable 
result of the conditions of the age. In this Fulfillment 
sense Christianity came — to use the ter- of religious 
minoiogy of the early church — as the needs of 
Pleroma, the fulfillment of the times. the times. 



64 



SUMMARIES OF BOOKS. 



Christianity 
anticipated 

by 

paganism. 



The future 

of 

Christianity. 



A new point of view is taken, in so far 
as the old orthodox interpretation so vigor- 
ously insisted on by Augustine is retained, 
that Christianity is practically the religion 
of mankind as it was from the beginning 
of history, and thus it is not Jewish but 
Gentile in its character. The ideals of a 
godman, of a savior, of the immortality 
of the soul, of a trinity, of the sacrament, 
are traceable in paganism but are con- 
spicuously absent in Judaism. 

The subject is treated in four divisions: 
Christianity Predetermined by the Needs 
of the Age ; Pre-Christian Gnosticism, The 
Bloom Preceding the Fruitage of Chris- 
tianity; How the Gentile Savior Changed 
into the Christ, and The Origin of Judaism 
and Its Significance for Christianity. The 
conclusion discusses the future of Chris- 
tianity. 

"It is a book which reconciles us to the 
church of God universal and the brotherhood 
of all men at all times. There is not an 
orthodox Christian on the earth who might not 
be broadened or softened by it. We lose noth- 
ing but our mistaken prejudices by reading it." 
—The Sketch Book, Chicago. 

"One of the ablest books on the subject." — 
Daily News, Springfield, Mass. 

"A valuable contribution to the literature of 
Christian orif^ns"— Independent Gazette, Phil' 
adelphia, .. 



ANGELUS SILESIUS. A Selection 
*^ from the Rhymes of a Seventeenth 
Century German Mystic. Translated in the 
original meter, with introduction. Pages, 
xxxiii, 174, Cloth, blue and gold, $r.oo 
(4S. 6d.). 

Mysticism is banished from the domain of 
science, but science is not the only mode of 
approach to truth. There are other avenues 
which lead to the ideal realm ; one is art, 
the other sentiment. 

Art attempts to picture life subspecie 
puichritudinis, viewing the world in the 
mirror of beauty. The mystic, however, 
is swayed by sentiment ; he endeavors to 
feel the solution which he deems too deep 
for the intellect. 

Dr. Canis has again and again opposed 
the mystic's claim, both in science and 
philosophy, but he is not for that reason an 
enemy of mysticism per se. He has ex- 
plained his views on the subject in an article 
on mysticism, which appeared in The Mon- 
ist, XVIII, 75, and his appreciation of 
mystic thought has led him to translate a 
selection of the verses of Johannes Scheff- 
ler, better known as Angelus Silesius. 

The preface of the present edition con- 
tains a sketch of the life of Angelus Silesius 
with a few illustrations, and the English 
translation is accompanied by the German 
text. 



A poet 
of 

religious 
mysticism. 



Truth and 
error in 
Mysticism. 



66 



SUMMARIES OF BOOKS. 



Humor 

and 

philosophy. 



Goethe and 
Schiller in 
collabora- 
tion. 



COWARD'S DREAM. The Philosophy 
*^ of a German Humorist. Translated 
and edited, with introduction, by Dr. Cams, 
Pages, 75. Cloth, red and gold, $1.00 (4s. 
6d.). 

Humor as a rule appears frivolous and 
flippant to the narrow-minded bigot who 
glories in vinegar and scowls at the silver 
ring of a laugh as an impious demonstra- 
tion. But, after all, the roots of humor go 
down into the most secret recesses of the 
human heart and are nourished by thoughts 
of a broad and profound comprehension of 
Ufe. 

Wilhelm Busch's humorous writings are 
the expression of a world-conception which 
teaches us to smile at the ills of life. He 
has reached this point of view by rising 
above himself and by looking down upon 
the world from a standpoint of good- 
natured and sympathetic irony. 

He has expressed his philosophy in a lit- 
tle book called Edward's Dream, the sub- 
stance of which is here presented. It is a 
product of German humor, but its place in 
the library is among the philosophers. 

pOETHE AND SCHILLER'S XEN- 
^^ IONS. Selected and translated into 
English. Bound in album shape on heavy 
paper. Paper covers. Pages, vii, 162. 
Price, So cents (2s. 6d0. 



GERMAN LITERATURE. 



67 



The appearance of the Xenions is sig- 
nificant in the lives of both Goethe and 
Schiller. Each one of them is the product 
of their common activity. Some of them 
are personal and satirical, while others in- 
corporate in the terse form of a distich, 
profound thoughts or far-reaching moral 
principles. The latter class, containing 
thoughts of enduring worth, have been 
selected here for the sake of making them, 
as they deserve to be, a part of English 
literature. 

They are translated in the original meter 
and with the assistance of a preface consti- 
tute a good introduction to the methods of 
classical prosody. 

CRIEDRICH SCHILLER. A Sketch of 
^ His Life and an Appreciation of His 
Poetry. Profusely illustrated. Pages, 102, 
octavo. Boards, cloth back, illustrated, 
cover, 75 cents net (3s. 6d.). 

Schiller, the poet, is better known than 
Schiller, the thinker. The present mono- 
graph, which is devoted to the biography 
of Schiller, dwells mainly on his philosophy 
as expressed in poems, which are not so 
well known as they deserve to be, 

"A strong character sketch, with critical ap- 
preciation of his work and specimens of his 
poetry in German and English translations, 
makes this volume to the Schiller lover a very 



Thoughts of 

enduring 

worth. 



Schiller's 
philosophy 
as expressed 
in poems. 



68 



SUMMARIES OF BOOKS. 



Schiller's 
keen insight 
into sham. 



attractive hook."'-Methodist Book and Publish- 
ing House, Toronto, 

"Schiller's philosophical thought, his keen 
insight into sham and pretense, and his heart- 
bracing utterances for freedom, may indeed be 
made .clear to all; and Dr. Cams has done 
significant service. . . . We commend Uiis 
book heartily."— C/im/ian Register, 

'This adequately illustrated and tastefully 
bound volume by Dr. Paul Cams is an ad- 
mirable memorial of the recent Schiller Cen- 
tenary. In addition to a biographical sketch 
we have two thoughtful essays by Dr. Cams 
on Schiller as a philosophical poet and on 
Schiller's poetry. Both have well-diosen se- 
lections of considerable extent, and it was a 
good idea to present these illustrative excerpts 
in both German and English."— TAe Outlook. 

QOETHE, HIS PHILOSOPHY AND 
^^ ART. Book now in preparation, with 
numerous rare illustrations. For contents 
see article list under "Goethe/' 



Doctrines 
and poetry 
of 
Buddhism. 



BUDDHISM. 

THE DHARMA. Or the Religion of 
* Enlightenment, An Exposition of Bud- 
dhism. Fifth edition. Revised and en- 
larged. Pages, xii, 167. Price, 25 cents 
(is.). 

The Dharma is a systematic exposition 
of Buddhist doctrines, containing quota- 
tions of the typical tenets formulated in 
Twelve Articles, an outline of the AU- 
dharma, the Buddhist philosophy, and ex- 



BUDDHISM. 

planations refuting some popular errors. 
Not the least noteworthy is a collection of 
gems of Buddhist poetry. The book is 
heartily recommended and indorsed by 
leading Buddhist priests of different coun- 
tries. 

"A compact and comprehensive exposition of 
Buddhism." — Boston Globe. 

"If you wish to see truth in simplicity, study 
this exposition of Buddhism. You will be 
ashamed to call yourself Presbyterian, or Meth- 
odist, or Baptist, and wish that you might be 
a true and sincere Buddhist. . . Truth de- 
rived from Buddhism enables us to understand 
the Prophets and the Gospels aright." — Occult 
Truths, IVashittgtOtt. 

THE GOSPEL OF BUDDHA. Eleventh Buddha's 

* edition. Pages, xvi, 275. Cloth, $1,00 life from 
(5s.). Buddhist 

German edition of the same, entitled, sources. 
Das Evangelium Buddhas. Pages, 352. 
Cloth, $1.25 (5 marks). 

The sacred books of Buddhism are very 
voluminous, and the Scriptures referring to 
the life of its founder have never been sys- 
tematically compiled. Soon after the Relig- 
ious Parliament, when Dr. Carus had been 
thrown into contact with living representa- 
tives of this remarkable faith, he undertook 
this long-needed work, and he did it in a 
conservative as well as sympathetic way, 
arranging translations of the several sources 
of the lift of the Buddha in one connected 



TO 



SUMMARIES OF BOOKS. 



Used in 
temples 
and 

schools in 
Japan. 



"God has 
nowhere left 
Himself 
without 
witness." 



narration, introducing his doctrines, to- 
gether with the occasions on which they 
were taught. The book has proved an un- 
paralleled success, for it has become an au- 
thoritative book with the Buddhists. It is 
used in temples and schools in Japan, Cey- 
lon and other Buddhist countries, and has 
been translated into Chinese, Japanese (two 
translations), Urdu, Bengali, Teluga, Si- 
amese, Tamil, Malay, etc.; further, into 
German, Dutch, French and Spanish. 

"The book will help its readers to a clearer 
conception of the character of the sweetest of 
the pagans.'* — Chicago Evening Post, 

"In addition to a very luminous and sug- 
gestive preface, Dr. Carus furnishes a table 
of references, showing at an eye-glance the 
sources of his extracts and the parallelism in 
the Gospels. He gives also a glossary of 
names and terms, a method of pronunciation 
and a good index. The simplicity of this 
presentation, the freedom of the text from 
notes or uncouth and outlandish diacritical 
points, and the general arrangement of the 
work, are admirable. . . It is admirably fitted 
to be a handbook for the single reader or for 
classes." — The Critic. 

"A volume which many readers will find full 
of fascinating interest. . . Read with a 
pretty wakeful discrimination, this is a book 
which is fitted to widen one's thoughts as to 
the religious nature of man everywhere; to 
convince one of the truth that God has nowhere 
left Himself without witness."— 7/*^ Advance, 

"Dr. Carus' book is one which will be ap- 
preciated by many a student of the religions 



of the world, who will find here the best 
thoughts of the great Oriental faith put into 
readable shape by a clever, a. learned and a 
sympathetic scholar. "Secular Thought. 

"A series of chapters of extracts from the 
words of Buddha, from what for the Buddhist 
corresponds to our Bible, so to express it. 
iMany chapters are beautiful in form and noble 
in sentiment. It is not offered in hostility to 
Christianity, but for study in connection with 
the latter and in the hope of promoting spiritual 
reflection."— rft* CoftgregalionalisS. 

'The book furnishes very pleasant reading, 
and we lay it down with the feeling that if 
the Hindus, and the Chinese, and the Japanese, 
who are mostly Buddhists, conform their lives 
to the doctrines taught by their great masters, 
they will fare well both in this world and 
the next."— JVewi York Herald. 

"The book is undoubtedly the best popular 
work on Buddhism in the English language. 
. . . . I think Dr. Cartts presents an ac- 
curate account of Buddhism in his work." — 
D. B. layalilaka, B. A.. Head Master Buddhist 
High School, Kandy, Ceylon. 

"I have read the work and like it immensely. 
I shall use it in our English schools." — A. B. 
Buult/ens, B. A., Principal of Ananda College, 
and General Manager of Buddhist Schools at 
Colomba, Ceylon. 

"It is a perfect exposition of Buddha's life, 
his doctrine and his order; it is most instruc- 
tive and impressive." — Translated from Ike Jio- 
Do-Kioho. 

DUDDHISM AND ITS CHRISTIAN 
*-' CRITICS. New and revised edition. 
Pages, 311. $1.25 (6s. 6d.). Contents: 



A 
Buddhist 

Bible. 



A 

text book 



72 



SUMMARIES OF BOOKS. 



Buddhism 
compared 
with 
Christianity. 



The 

mission 

problem. 



The Origin of Buddhism; The Philosophy 
of Buddhism; The Psychological Problem; 
The Basic Concepts of Buddhism; Bud- 
dhism and Christianity; Christian Critics. 

Buddhism, so important in the history of 
religion on account of its many parallels 
to Christianity, is greatly misunderstood and 
misrepresented. The present book sets 
forth in brief, but sufficiently detailed out- 
lines, the origin of Buddhism, its philos- 
ophy, its psychology, and its underlying 
world-conception, contrasting it with Chris- 
tianity, pointing out similarities, discussing 
the probabilities of a mutual influence, and 
finally criticizing the leading Christian 
critics of Buddhism. Dr. Cams shows a 
sympathetic attitude toward Buddhism, 
without, however, opposing Christianity. 
He pays considerable attention to the mis- 
sion problem, and advocates missions on 
both sides for the purpose of mutual ex- 
change of thought. The church that does 
not missionarize is dead. Therefore we 
ought to send out missionaries, but we 
ought also be willing to receive missionaries 
of another faith. 

"What our author says of missionaries should 
be read and heeded by missionaries everywhere. 
As a study in comparative religion, as a de- 
marcation between the abstraction and pas- 
sivity of Buddhism and the activity and salva- 
tion-in-struggle of Christianity, Dr. Cams' vol- 



BUDDHISM. 



ume is admirable. It is hardly less so in its 
illuminalive description, of the origin, basic 
concepts, philosophy and psychology of Bud- 
dhism itself. The author's calm judicial-mind- 
edness and absence of mere scnlimentaUsm 
peculiarly fit him for the work." — Outlook. 

"The enlightened Buddhist would be helped 
by i(, and there is not a sectarian Christian 
on the planet who might not be broadened or 
softened by it. It is a reconciling book." — The 
Coming Day, London. 

PORTFOLIO OF BUDDHIST ART, 
* HISTORICAL AND MODERN. Il- 
lustrations of Rqiresentative Monuments 
and Other Pictures. Thirty-one plates and 
descriptive text. 50 cents, net (2s. 6d., 
net). 

This is a collection representative of dif- 
ferent periods and types chosen almost at 
random from a wealth of innumerable art 
productions that have originated under the 
influence of the Buddhist religion. One 
novel feature consists in the illustrations of 
Dr. Carus's Gospel of Buddha, painted by 
Eduard Biedermann, who offers in these 
pictures a modem interpretation of the 
Buddhist ideal, basing a Western treatment 
upon a historical conception. 

CTORIES OF BUDDHISM. A trilogy, 
" comprising: 

(a) KARMA. A story of Buddhist eth- 
ics. Illustrated by Kwasong Suzuki. Anier- 



Influence of 
Buddhism 
on Oriental 



74 



SUMMARIES OF BOOKS. 



Buddhist 

morality, 

psychology, 

and 

theology. 



Tolstoy's 
recom- 
mendation. 



lean edition. Pages, 47. 15 cents (lod.). 
Japanese edition. Quaint water-color illus- 
trations. Crepe paper, tied in silk. 75 
cents (3s. 6d.). Karma, eine buddhistische 
Erzahlung. German edition, with outline 
illustrations. Paper, 35 cents (is. 6d.). 

The story of Karma drives home in a 
direct and forcible way the advisability of 
good-will toward all. Count Tolstoy com- 
mended it for both "its artlessness and its 
profundity." He translated the story into 
Russian, and hence was supposed in cer- 
tain retranslations from Russian into 
French, German, and English to be its 
author. When he discovered the error, he 
wrote : *T deeply regret not only that such 
a falsehood was allowed to pass unchal- 
lenged, but also the fact that it was a false- 
hood in reality, for I should be very happy 
were I the author of this tale. ... It 
is one of the best products of national wis- 
dom, and ought to be bequeathed to all 
mankind.'' 

"A thing of rare beauty.— Bo^fon Daily Ad- 
vertiser. 

"Simply a gem,'*— Presbyterian and Reformed 
Review. 

"I read it aloud to children, and they liked 
it. And among grown-up people its reading 
always gave rise to conversation about the 
gravest problems of life. And, to my mind, 
this is a very good recommendation." — Count 
Leo Tolstoy, 



k 



BUDDHISM. 



75 



"The story puts the tangled and mysterious 
doctrine of Karma in such clear and pretty 
lights that each chapter reads in epigram melo- 
dious as the proverbs and as absorbingly in- 
teresting as a fairy Tomance."— Chicago Daily 
News, 

'There is nothing in the shape of a holiday 
book on the market that so strongly appeals 
to the intelligent and cultivated reader as does 
this odd and beautiful publication." — The Amer^ 
ican Israelite, 

"The tale is in Dr. Carus' 
at once charms and enslaves, 
held spellbound till the end is 
rises a wiser and better man. 
wholesome as it is sparkling, 
as it is frank and fearless." — 
Journal, 



loftiest vein. It 

The reader is 

reached, and he 

The tale is as 

and as uplifting 

The Gentleman's 



ARTICLE IN COMMENT ON KARMA. 

Sampietro's Mother. By Dr. Paul Carus. 
Open Court, XIX, No. 595, p. 756. 

(b) NIRVANA. A story of Buddhist 
psychology. Illustrations by Kwasong Su- 
zuki. Pages, 93. Boards, 60 cents, net. 

In the development of its plot the story 
Nirvana contains an exposition of Buddhist 
psychology, together with an explanation 
of the Buddhist view of life after death. 

Compare "The Buddhist Conception of 
Death," by the Rt. Rev. Soyen Shaku, 
Mon, xvii. I ; and the chapter entitled 
"Buddhism and Oriental Culture" in 5*^- 
mons of a Buddhist Abbot, by the same 
author. 



Buddhist 
conception 
of 
immortality. 



76 



SUMMARIES OF BOOKS. 



Buddhist 
wedding 
ceremony. 



The 

Buddhist 
God- 
conception. 



"The scene is in a Brahman village in North- 
em Central India, and reminds one of parts 
of Mr. Rudyard Kipling's 'Jungle Books.' There 
is a charming account of a wedding ceremony, 
after which the wise men discourse of the 
Tathagata as taught by a wandering disciple 
of Buddha." — London Spectator. 

"This little book deserves translation into the 
languages of all countries where Buddhism is 
either believed in or studied, for it works on 
the lines laid down by the Pali originals, to 
which (with commendable clearness of ref- 
erence) it owes its inspiration." — The Athe- 
naum, London, 

(c) AMITABHA. A story of Buddhist 
theology. Pages, 121. Boards, 50 cents, 
net. 

The story of Amitabha has a historical 
setting in the ascendancy of the kingdom of 
Gandhara, under King Kanishka, whose in- 
terest in Buddhism and whose connection 
with Acvaghosha, the great Buddhist phil- 
osopher, are well known. The plot gives 
ample opportunity in discussion and inci- 
dent to explain and illustrate some of the 
cardinal points of Buddhism, especially in 
regard to the way of salvation and the God- 
conception represented by Amitabha Bud- 
dha, the Source of Infinite Light and the 
Standard of Being, as distinct from the 
Brahman idea of a conscious personal 
deity. 

The frontispiece is a reproduction of a 
statue found at Gandhara, which is sup- 



CHINESE SUBJECTS. 



posed to be the oldest Buddhist statue now 
in existence. It is especially appropriate to 
accompany the story of Amitabha, for it 
represents the influence of the Greek sculp- 
tors who in Kanishka's reign "flocked to 
Gandhara, transplanting the art of their 
home to the soil of India." 

The American editions of the trilogy will 
be sent to one address for $i.oo. 

It should be noticed that the Japanese 
crepe edition of Karma is not included in 
this offer. If desired, add 60 cents to above 
ofifer to include it. 



Influence 
of Greek 

sculptors 



CHINESE SUBJECTS. 

pHINESE PHILOSOPHY. An Ex- 

^^ position of the Main Characteristic 
Features of Chinese Thought. Numerous 
diagrams, native characters and illustra- 
tions. Paper, 25 cents (is. 6d.). 

It is a sketch, not an exhaustive treatise, 
and still less a history of Chinese philoso- 
phy. It purports to serve as an introduc- 
tion to the intricacies of typically Chinese 
notions, explaining their symbols and re- 
vealing their mysteries in terse and intelligi- 
ble language. The brevity is intentional, 
for the essay is meant to give a bird's-eye 
view of the Chinese world-conception. 
While appreciating the remarkable genius 
exhibited by the founders of the Chinese 



Remarkable 
genius of 
founders of 
Chinese 
civilization. 



78 



SUMMARIES OF BOOKS. 



Endorsed 
by the 
Chinese 
government. 



Chinese 
philosophy 
a rare 
mixture of 
deep thought 
and idle 
speculations. 



civilization, the author points out the foibles 
of the Chinese and traces them to their 
source. It is noteworthy that in spite of its 
candid and unreserved criticism, the essay 
was well received by the Chinese authori- 
ties and was granted the rare honor of be- 
ing recommended by the Tsung Li Yamen 
of Peking, the Imperial Foreign Office, and 
placed on file in their archives. 

A Chinese scholar writes: "When the 
Tsung Li Yamen voluntarily certifies that 
a Western scholar fully understands Chi- 
nese philosophy, and the Book of Changes 
as an incidental section of the same, it 
would be well for those who happen to be 
interested in either of these topics to in- 
quire what he has to say. . . . Suffice 
it to say that the author has made a pro- 
found, if not an absolutely incomprehensi- 
ble topic, to a certain extent, luminous, and 
to an even greater degree, interesting." 

"The author gives in his introduction terse 
and discriminating characterizations of the 'rare 
mixture of deep thought and idle speculations' 
which make up the Chinese philosophy, and in 
his conclusion expresses equally just opinions 
of China's present unhappy helplessness." — J, M. 
Foster, Stvatow, China, in the American Journal 
of Theology. 

"Valuable and of unquestioned reliability. 
The delineation of the philosophy that under- 
lies the Chinese civilization is so ably done in 
these pages that the reader cannot fail to ap- 



"There is no one in America better qualified 
than Dr. Cams to treat of this and kindred 
subjects. It has been his life study — and we 
know of no writer who can place so abstruse 
a subject in so interesting a form." — The Com- 
mercial Travelers' Magazine. 

pHINESE THOUGHT. An Exposition 
^^ of the Main Characteristic Features of 
the Chinese World- Conception, being a. 
continuation of the author's essay, Chinese 
Philosophy. Illustrated, Index. Pages, 
195. $1.00, net (4s. 6d.). 

This book contains much that is of very 
great interest in the development of Chinese 
culture. Beginning in the first chapter with 
a study of the earliest modes of thought- 
communication among primitive people of 
different parts of the world, and tracing 
the growth of the present system of Chinese 
caligraphy. In "Chinese Occultism" some 
interesting Oriental mystical ideas are ex- 
plained as well as the popular methods of 
divination by means of trigrams and the 
geomancer's compass. In a special chapter, 
the zodiacs of different nations are com- 
pared with reference to the Chinese zodiac, 
and also as to a possible common Baby- 
lonian origin. This chapter contains many 
rare and valuable illustrations representing 
almost all known zodiacs, from those of 



of Chinese 
conserva- 
tism." 



Chinese 

system of 
writing. 



Oriental 
methods 
of 
divination. 



8o 



SUMMARIES OF BOOKS. 



Zodiacs of 

different 

nations. 



Characteris- 
tics of 
Chinese 
morality. 



Egypt to those of the natives of the West- 
em hemisphere. The influence of Con- 
fucius is discussed, and a hurried recapitula- 
tion of the most important points in Chinese 
history is given, together with a review of 
the long novel which stands in the place of 
a national epia Chinese characteristics and 
social conditions have their place in this 
volume, as well as remarks upon the part 
played in China by Christian missions, and 
upon the introduction of Western commer- 
cialism. The author's object is to furnish 
the necessary material for a psychological 
appreciation of the Chinese by sketching 
the main characteristic features of the ideas 
which dominate Chinese thought and inspire 
Chinese morality, hoping thereby to con- 
tribute a little toward the realization of 
peace and good-will upon earth. A gjeat 
deal of information concerning things 
Chinese is here gathered into small compass, 
and much of it has been dug out from 
recondite sources sometimes not easily ac- 
cessible even to sinologists. 

"The author is to be commended on the 
completeness and the erudition with which he 
has handled an obscure subject." — The Argonaut, 

"To all interested in Chinese and other East- 
ern civilization this book will possess compel- 
ling fascination, so full is it of careful research, 
ably presented, by one of the most competent 
scholars of the age." — Courier-Journal, Louis- 
vUle, Ky. 



CHINESE SUBJECTS. 8i 



"The essential sanity and goodness of the 
Chinese character receives an appropriate trib- 
ute, and its very faults are set forth as rather 
misapplied virtues than anything widely varying 
from our own conceptions of right and wrong. 
— The Chicago Daily News, 

I AO-TZE'S TAO TEH KING. Chinese- Lao-tze. 
" English. With introduction, verbatim 
translation and notes. With a photo- 
gravure frontispiece of the traditional pic- 
ture of Lao-Tze, especially drawn for the 
work by an eminent Japanese artist. Ap- 
propriately bound in yellow and blue, with 
gilt top. Pages, 345. $3.00 (15s.). 

Lao-Tze, one of the most profound sages A 
in the history of human civilization, who great 
lived 600 years B. C, and 100 years before moral 
Buddha, left a most remarkable little treatise teacher, 
on Reason and Virtue, which is here repro- 
duced in its Chinese text, accompanied by 
translation and explanations so as to make 
even minute shades of the original accessible 
to the English reader. 

THE CANON OF REASON AND 
* VIRTUE. Separate reprint of Lao- 
Tze's Tao Teh King, the English transla- 
tion only. Pages, 75. Paper, 25 cents 
(is. 6d.). 

"Allow me to congratulate you on your ca- 
pacity for seeing into millstones." — Rev. Arthur 



82 



SUMMARIES OF BOOKS. 



3S 



Rev. A. H. 
Smith 
of the 
American 
Board of 
Missions. 



Accords 
with 

Christian 
sentiment. 



H. Smith, American Board of Missions, Tient^ 
sin, China, 

"It goes without saying that the task of 
obtaining su£Bcient acquaintance with the Chi- 
nese language to translate, under the condi- 
tions named, a book like that of Lao-Tze. is 
a gigantic one. Dr. Cams' success is little 
short of marvelous. He frequently cites the 
versions of others, and it seems clear that Dr. 
Cams has succeeded better than Dr. Legge or 
Dr. Chalmers in the passages where we are 
able to compare them — ^a very remarkable fact, 
indeed" — North China Herald* 

"I thank you heartily for your kindness in 
sending me a copy of your fine translation and 
critical exposition of Lao-Tze*s Tao Teh King. 
It was years ago that I read it. Your pub- 
lication of the Chinese text will be highly ap- 
preciated by all who want to make a study of 
the philosopher. As I read the text and then 
the translation, I am astonished how well you 
kept the original terseness and severe brevity 
in English."— Pro/ewor S. Watasi, 

"Nothing like this book exists in Chinese lit- 
erature; so lofty, so vital, so restful. . . . 
We have compared this translation with three 
others-^two English, one German — and have no 
hesitation in saying it is the most satisfactory 
and serviceable as well as least expensive now 
accessible to the public. The bright cover of 
yellow and blue is very appropriate and sug- 
gestive of the Celestial Kingdom." — The Hart- 
ford Post. 

"The Canon contains much that is in accord 
with Christian sentiment, though written before 
the time of Jesus. It is exceedingly interest- 
ing as showing that tmth is the same for all 
time and by whomever presented." — The Toledo 
Blade. 



I 



T'AI-SHANG KAN-YING P'lEN. Trea- 
tise of the Exalted One on Response 
and Retribution. Translation from the Chi- 
nese by Teitaro Suzuki and Dr. Paul Carus. 
Containing Chinese Text, Verbatim Trans- 
lation, Explanatory Notes and Moral Tales. 
Edited by Dr. Paul Carus. i6 plates. 
Pages, 135. Boards, 75 cents, net 

The book contains a critical and descrip- 
tive introduction, and the entire Chinese 
text in large and distinct characters, with 
the verbatim translation of each page ar- 
ranged on the opposite page in correspond- 
ing vertical columns. This feature makes 
the book a valuable addition to the number 
of Chinese-English text-books already avail- 
able. The text is a facsimile reproduction 
of Chinese texts made in Japan by Chinese 
scribes. 

After the Chinese text follows the Eng- 
lish translation, giving references to the 
corresponding characters in the Chinese 
original, as well as to the .explanatory notes 
immediately following the English version. 
These are very full and explain the sig- 
nificance of allusions in the Treatise and 
compare different translations of disputed 
passages. This is the first translation into 
English directly from the Chinese original, 
though it was rendered into French by 



China's most 
popular 
religious 
book. 



84 SUMMARIES OF BOOKS. 

Stanislas Julien, and from his French edi- 
tion into English by Douglas. 

"Presents some startlingly impressive moral 
injunctions." — Chicago Evening Post. 

"A document of the first interest"— CAtVa^o 
Daily News. 

yiN CHIH WEN. The Tract of the 
* Quiet Way. With extracts from the 
Chinese commentary. Translated by Tei- 
taro Suzuki and Dr. Paul Cams. Pages, 
48. 25 cents, net. 

This is a collection of moral injunctions 
which, among the Chinese, is, perhaps, sec- 
ond only to the Kan-Ying P4en in popu- 
Translated larity, and yet, so far as is known to the 

for the publishers, this is the first translation that 

first time. has been made into any Occidental lan- 

guage. It is now issued as a companion 
to the T'ai-Shang Kan-Ying P'ien, aldiough 
it does not contain either a facsimile of the 
text or its verbatim translation. The origi- 
nal consists of the short tract itself, which 
is here presented, of glosses added by com- 
mentators, which form a large part of the 
book, and finally a number of stories similar 
to those appended to the Kan-Ying P'ien. 
The translator's notes are of value in justi- 
fying certain readings and explaining allu- 
sions, and the book is provided with an 
index. The frontispiece, an artistic outline 
drawing by Shen Chin-Ching, represents 



Wen Ch'ang, one of the highest divinities 
of China, revealing himself to the author 
of the tract. 

The motive of the tract is that of prac- Chinese 
tical morality. The maxims give definite maxims of 
instructions in regard to details of man's universal 
relation to society, besides more general ethical 
commands of universal ethical significance, significance. 
such as "Live in Concord," "Forgive Mal- 
ice" and "Do not assert with your mouth 
what your heart denies." 

"Nothing is left undone to render these ven- 
erable and interesting booklets intelligible and 
attractive. The form in which they are issued 
does credit to the translators, to the editor, and 
to the publisher. We could scarcely be taught 
more impressively how ineff ace ably God has 
written His law on the human heart."— Fnfice- 
loH Theological Review. 

r-HINESE LIFE AND CUSTOMS. 
^^ With illustrations by Chinese artists. 
Pages, 114. 75 cents, net (3s. 6d.. net). 

This book is little more than a compila- Chinese 
tion of Chinese illustrations, accom.panied customs 
with only as much text as wilt suffice to pictured by 
explain them, and what further material has Chinese 
been added is merely in the way of quota- artists, 
tions from Chinese literature. The inten- 
tion is to make the Chinese people charac- 
terize themselves by word and picture. 
Child rhymes, love lyrics and songs of 
revelry are introduced in translations from 



86 



SUMMARIES OF BOOKS. 



Chinese poetry which is recognized as 
classical. The illustrations which form the 
great body of the book are from the most 
authentic sources of information concern- 
ing modem life in China, unaffected by 
aggressive Occidental foreigners. The book 
is divided into chapters on "Annual Fes- 
tivities/' "Industries and Foreign Rela- 
tions," "Confucianism and Ancestor Wor- 
ship," "Taoism and Buddhism,'' "Child- 
hood and Education," "Betrothal and Mar- 
riage," "Social Customs and Travels, 
"Sickness and Death." 



Quaintness 
of Chinese 
humor 



pf 



"A unique book.*' — Louisville Courier 'Journal. 

"A simple presentation of the realities of 
things unmixed with any theorizing. . . The 
numerous illustrations are genuine specimens 
of Chinese art, full of quaintness and some- 
times of quiet hyimoT J*— Glasgow Daily Herald, 

"With each of the reproduced illustrations 
goes the explanation needed for complete un- 
derstanding, whether the picture be one of the 
gods, of the celebration of a religious festival, 
of the planting of rice, or of boys in school. 
In this way nearly the whole of the life of 
the Chinese people finds exposition, and the 
western man can follow his eastern cousin into 
his home and through his entire days on earth 
with ready comprehension." — Chicago Daily 
News. 

"To understand all is to forgive all," may 
well be said after reading this interesting rec- 
ord of the kinship of all humanity." — The 
Sketch Book. 



r)E RERUM NATURA. A Poem on 
"^ the Nature of Things. German edi- 
tion, 25 pages. English edition, 17 pages. 
Parchment, 25 cents (is.). Paper, 15 
cents. 

The world problem has always been a 
fascinating theme for poet-philosophers. 
The title, De Rerum Natura, is taken from 
a treatment of the same subject, written by 
another Cams ( Titus Lucretius) . But 
while the poet-philosopher of the golden 
age of Latin literature has written a pon- 
derous and argumentative discourse, his 
modem follower is terse, and attempts to 
express only the sentiments of the modern 
science-molded man, in contemplation of 
the Great All, of the soul and its destiny. 

The poem was originally published in the 
Philosophische Monatshefte. An English 
translation of the above has been made by 
Charles Alva Lane in cc^laboration with the 
author. 

"To me yaar poem is a. souk that thrills 
with genuine loftiness and grandeur; a romance 
recounting: in rhythmic cadences and in rev- 
erential spirit the tale of the All-Soul. It con- 
demns nothing but that which is out of place, 
such as ignorance and superstition, etc., and 
these are not condemned, but merely disproved." 
— Dr. T. T. Blaise, Mason Ciiy, Iowa. 

"A noble poem, whose rugged music kindles 
enthusiasm in the search for the mighty god- 
dess. Truth."— ii/ffrarjp Critic, Chicago. 



Poem 
on the 
World 
Problem, 



88 



SUMMARIES OF BOOKS. 



QODWARD. A Record of Religious 
^^ Progress. Pages 26, 30 cents (2s. 
6d.). 

This is a collection of short poems reflect- 
ing the author's religious development from 
orthodox Christianity through infidelity to 
a new and positive faith on broader, more 
philosophical and truer grounds. Most of 
these poems were originally written in Ger- 
man, but have been rewritten by the author 
to express the same thoughts in the lan- 
guage of his new home. 



A spiritual 
autobiog- 
raphy 
verse. 



m 



Hymns of 
the new 
interpretation 
of religion. 



"This little book of verse is a spiritual auto- 
biography. . . It is a surer testimony of the 
certitudes of religion than that of those who 
never doubted." — M. E. Magazine and Review, 

SACRED TUNES FOR THE CONSE- 
CRATION OF LIFE. Hymns of the 
Religion of Science, with Musical Accom- 
paniment. Pages, 48. so cents (2s. 6d.). 
This is a collection of hymns where the 
new interpretation of religion is set to some 
of the most beautiful chorals and hymns. 
It contains a new version of "Nearer, My 
God, to Thee," and also a Bridal Song for 
Marriage Ceremonies, and several Funeral 
Anthems. 

"The spirit of the poems is devout The 
writer is sincere and honest. There is much 
that is beautiful, and true, and good." — M. E, 
Book and Publishing House, Toronto, 



POETRY AND FICTION. 89 

YHE CROWN OF THORNS. A Story 
**• of the Time of Christ. Illustrated by 
Eduard Biedermann. Pages, 73. Cloth, 
75 cents, net (3s. 6d., net). 

"The Crown of Thorns" is a story of the An episode 
time of Christ. It is fiction of the charac- in the time 
ter of religious legend, utilizing materials of Christ 
preserved in both the canonical Scriptures 
and the Apocryphal traditions, but giving 
preference to the former. The hopes and 
beliefs of the main personalities can be 
verified throughout by documentary evi- 
dence. The religious milieu is strictly his- 
torical and is designed to show the way 
in which Christianity developed from Ju- 
daism through the Messianic hopes of the 
Nazarenes as interpreted by the Apostle 
Paul of Tarsus. 

"A beautifully written, well-illustrated and 
entertaining little book." — The Bookworm, 

"Though a short story, it is one of singular 
charm and power. As a whole it is a capital 
instance of how legitimately and effectively for 
the particular purpose in view, the imagination 
may co-operate with the historic spirit. The 
mood of the story is pervaded by a sentiment 
of exceeding delicacy and reverence. . . . 
There is not one false note in it."— Chicago 
Evening Post, 

PROS AND PSYCHE. One of the 
^-* Quaintest Stories of the World's Folk- 
Lore. Retold after Apuleius. Halftone 



90 



SUMMARIES OF BOOKS. 



reproductions, with ornamental borders, of 
the famous illustrations of Paul Thumann. 
Printed from pica type on Strathmore 
deckle-edge paper, elegantly bound, and 
with classic cover design by E. Biedermann. 
Pages, XV, io8. Cloth, $1.50, net (6s.). 

This ancient Greek fairy story incor- 
porates, in the shape of a myth, the primi- 
tive religion of a prehistoric age, teaching 
the immortality of the soul. For this rea- 
son, the early Christians frequently repre- 
sented on their sarcophagi, Eros and 
Psyche, together with the good Shepherd. 
The present version, though faithful to the 
original, brings out the religious aspect of 
the story. 



A fairy 
tale of 
ancient 
Greece. 



The real 
significance 
of the tale. 



"The Greek tone as well as the Greek name 
of the god is sustained in this little volume, 
which is daintily arranged, and beautifully illus- 
trated by Paul Thumann."— Ow//oo^. 

"Dr. Carus is master of a clear, flowing 
English style, and tells in a graceful manner 
this ancient story of love and adventure."— 
Dominion Presbyterian, 

"Dr. Carus has brought out the religious 
and philosophical leitmotiv with more emphasis 
than it possesses in the original. By obliterating 
the flippant and satirical tone of the Greek 
writer and adding a few skillful touches where 
the real significance of the tale lies, he has 
made a story capable of giving religious com- 
fort and at the same time of delighting the 
ethical and artistic sense."— CA»Va^<? Tribune. 



POETRY AND FICTION. 



91 



"Lovers of the beautiful in mythology and 
in the book-maker's art will be enraptured over 
this charming little book. The chaste and 
classical design on the front cover is in keep- 
ing with the high art ideal maintained through- 
out. The story itself is made more attractive 
than ever by Dr. Carus* discriminating explana- 
tion of its origin and symbolism"—Baptist 
Union, 

THE CHIEF'S DAUGHTER. A Le- 
* gend of Niagara. Rich photogravure 
illustrations. Special initials and title page 
ornaments. Printed on fine paper in large, 
clear type. Pages, 54. Cloth, $1.00, net 
(4s.). 

This Indian legend, which relates the 
annual sacrifice of a beautiful maiden to 
the waters of Niagara, has here been made 
the basis of a tale of religious development 
and emancipation. The scene is laid in the 
time of the French exploration of the North 
and Middle West, and the chief European 
role is played by the historic figure of 
Father Hennepin. 

The lesson of the legend shows the sig- 
nificance of human sacrifice practiced in 
all pagan religions. The cruel ritual is 
abolished here in the story in a way similar 
to its abandonment by European nations 
after the appearance of Christianity. 

"As a dainty and delicate, fanciful and phi- 
losophical story, it is interesting." — Frederick 
Starr, in Unity. 



High ideal 
of the 
art of 
bookmaking. 



Indian 
legend of 
Niagara 
Falls. 



92 SUMMARIES OF BOOKS. 



"A beautiful story, told in simple and ad- 
mirably chosen language, and with plenty of 
pure and ingenious moralizing between the lines 
for the reader." — Chicago Record-Herald, 

"Dr. Carus tells the legend with many pa- 
thetically romantic incidents, in lucid and pret- 
tily adaptable language, not a word but conveys 
a direct and harmonious meaning. There's a 
touch of exalted moralizing in the story, the 
kind that appeals to the heart as well as to 
the intellect." — Exchange, 

TTHE PHILOSOPHER'S MARTYR- 

* DOM. A Satire. Pages vi, 67. 

Parchment wrapper. 50 cents, net (2s. 6d., 

net). Edition de luxe fully illustrated by 

Olga Kopetsky. Boards, $1.00, net (4s. 

6d., net). 

A satire A satire to disprove agnosticism and 

on hedonism. It ridicules the proposition that 

agnosticism. the main philosophical problems are un- 

solvable and shows in practical instances 
that the greatest happiness of the greatest 
number is by no means always desirable, 
still less a test of moral conduct. These 
propositions are not discussed, but eluci- 
dated in a story containing a series of 
humorous events leading up to the martyr 
death of the hero who gallantly submits to 
his fate among the cannibals in faithful 
adhesion to his hedonistic philosophy. 

"With the aim of the well-known author we 
find ourselves in hearty accord. His satire is 
more than clever; it is effective/' — Princeton 
Theological Review, 



SUMMARIES OF EDITORIAL ARTICLES 

PUBLISHED IN 

THE OPEN COURT. AND THE MONIST* 

1887-1909. 

ABHIDARMA OUTLINED. O. C. X, 5107-5109. Republished 
in The Dharma, 

ABOLITION OF WITCH PERSECUTION. O. C. X, 4946- 
4949. Republished in Hist of the Devil. 

ABSOLUTE, THE. O. C. VII, 3594-3596. Republished in 
Primer of Phil. 

ABSTRACT IDEAS, THE ASSAY OF. O. C. II, 1422. Brief 
Note in Comment on David Newport's essay, "The Self- 
Evident." 

ABSTRACTION. O. C. VII, 3569-3572. Republished in Primer 
of Phil 

ACCAD AND THE EARLY SEMITES. O. C. IX, 4651-4654. 
Republished in Hist, of the Devil, 

ACROPOLIS, THE. Fully illustrated. O. C. XVII, 193-21 1. 
Briefly relates the history of the stronghold of Athens from 
the first settlement of the Pelasgians in prehistoric times to 
the despoliation of the friezes of the Parthenon by Lord Elgin. 
The illustrations include a map of the Acropolis, views of the 
whole from different sides, and a restoration, besides details 
showing portions of the Cimonian wall, the Erechtheum, temple 
of Nike Apteros, the Propylaea, the Parthenon restored and 
in its present condition. 

AGNOSTICISM, A DEFENDER OF. R. G. Ingersoll. O. C. 
Ill, 1554. Brief note on an article on Huxley by Ingersoll. 

AGNOSTICISM AND AUGUSTE COMTES POSITIVISM. 
O. C. Ill, 1589-1590. Republished in Fund. Prob. 

AGNOSTICISM AND MONISM. O. C. Ill, 1893-1894. In 
reply to criticisms of Fund, Prob. Republished in the Appen- 
dix o£ 2d Ed. 



*See page 187. 



94 PHILC5SOPHY AS A SCIENCE. 

AGNOSTICISM AND RELIGION. O. C. II, 1042-1048; 1059- 
1063. A Discussion of the Controversy between the Rev. 
H. M. Field and Col. R. G. Ingersoll, and of the Hon. W. E. 
Gladstone's remarks with regard to it. 

AGNOSTICISM IN THE PULPIT. O. C. XX, 411-416. A 
reply to the Rev. Frank Crane's eulogy on "The Cohesive 
Power of Ignorance," pointing out the dangers that lurk in this 
prevalent phase of popular religious thought. 

AGNOSTICISM, MODESTY OF. O. C. Ill, 199a In reply 
to criticisms of Fund. Prob. Republished in the Appendix of 
2d Ed. 

AGNOSTICISM OF MODESTY. O. C. IV, 2148. In reply 
to criticisms of Fund. Prob. Republished in the Appendix of 
2d Ed. 

AGNOSTICISM, QUESTIONS OF. O. C. IV, 2686-2688. Re- 
published in Homilies of Science, 

AGNOSTICISM REVISED, THE CASE OF. O. C V, 2993. 
2997. A discussion of the agnostic views of Mr. Ellis Thurtell 
and Dr. Lewis G. Janes, followed by a critique of Spencerism. 

AGNOSTICISM, SPENCERIAN. O. C. V, 2951-2957. Repub- 
lished in Kant and Spencer. 

AGNOSTICISM, TWO ERRORS OF. O. C. Ill, 1671-1672. 
In reply to Paul R. Shipman. Quotes Adeline Pond's poem 
about the Foolish Child and the Great Wise Man. 

AGNOSTICISM. See also: "Argument, The Highest Trump 
in." "Consolation of Errors." "Death is Silent, but Life 
Speaks." "Ghosts and the Belief in Ghosts." "Henism, The 
Wrong Method of." "Ignoramus and Inveniemus." "Monism 
a Terminus of Thought, Is?" "Religious Truth Possible, Is?" 
"Senses, The Limitations of Our." "Words and Their Mean- 
ings." "The Unknowable." 

AINUS, THE. Fully illustrated. O. C. XIX, 163-177. A brief 
sketch of the appearance, customs and beliefs of these inhabi- 
tants of Yezo, who, though subjects of the Japanese empire, 
are obviously a white race. It is illustrated by numerous 
photographs of the native group who were brought to the 
St. Louis Exposition by Prof. Frederick Starr. 




ALADDIN'S LAMP. 0. C. XXII. 588-590. In comment on 
Mr Tebbelts' article, "Once upon a Time," in which the 
romance of childhood is praised and its loss in later years 
deplored. The present article maintains thai during the days 
of childhood its romance is not apparent, and that children's 
woes are to them as great as serions trouble in later years; 
hen'te we should feel that as life advances we gain as much 
or more than we lose. 

ALIENS WANTED 1 O. C. VII, 3759-376o. In comment on 
the Chicago anarchists and Gov. Altgeld's action. 

ALPHA AND OMEGA. O. C. XVI, 6zo. A brief note ex- 
plaining that these Greek letter.^, often found in the catacombs 
combined with the chrisma, probably represent a symbol oldet 
than Christianity. 

ALTGELD'S MESSAGE, GOVERNOR. O. C. IX. 4397-4398. 
With regard to the administration of Justice, the conditions 
surrounding police and justice courts, and the settlement of 
labor troubles. 

AMERICAN IDEAL, THE. O. C, V, 2807-2809. Repubhshed 
in Horn, of Sci. 

AMERICANISM AND EXPANSION. O. C. XIII, 215-223. 
A justification of the government's assuming control of the 
Philippines, in the light of the history and principles of the 
United States. 

AMERICANISM IN THE ROMAN CHURCH. O. C. XIII, 
2S3-25S- The encyclical of the late Pope Leo XIII was inter- 
preted by the Italian parly in the Church as a condemnation of 
American tendencies. Its expressions, however, were general 
enough to permit of a more lenient interpretation by Archbishop 
Ireland and his followers in America. This short article presents 
the position of The Open Court on the value and strength of the 
Roman Catholic Church, and maintains that so long as Ameri- 
canism with its love of freedom, self- reliance, and conscious- 
ness of responsibility is recognized as an influence in the 
politics of the Church, there is hope that she may keep pace 
with the progress of Protestant countries. 

AMITABHA: A STORY OF BUDDHIST .METAPHYSICS. 
O. C. XVT, 415-427; 486-505; 536-549. ReprinUd in book form 



96 PHILOSOPHY AS A SCIENCE. 



under the same title. For explanatory comments see "Maha- 
yana Doctrine and Art." 

ANANDA METTEYA. See s, v. "Maitreya." 

ANARCHISM. O. C. XV, S79-S8i. A short discussion of the 
province of law and its relation to true liberty. 

ANARCHISM AND SOCIALISM. O.C.I, 754. An appreciative 
resume of the history of these two opposite ideals, showing 
that either, by itselfy would lead to destruction; and that the 
path of progress lies between the two extremes. 

ANARCHISM, SOCIALISM AND. O. C. V, 2856-2857. See 
s, V. "Socialism." 

ANARCHISTS, A FEW WORDS ABOUT THE. O. C. IV. 
2538. See s. V, "Joliet, A Visit to." 

ANARCHISTS. See also "Aliens Wanted!" 

ANGEL OF AUGSBURG. Agnes Bernauer. O. C. X, 4901- 
4902. Republished in the Hist of the Devil, 

ANGELUS SILESIUS. Illustrated. O. C. XXII, 291-297. Re- 
published in book form. 

ANNEXATION AND INTERNATIONAL STEALING. O. C 
VII, 3557. A few comments on Gen. Trumbull's remarks on 
the annexation of Hawaii. See also s. v. "Expansion, but not 
Imperialism." 

ANSCHAUUNG, WHAT DOES IT MEAN? Mon. II, 527- 
532. Republished in Kant and Spencer, 

ANTHROPOID APES. Fully Illustrated. O. C XX, 6-25. 
Republished in the Rise of Man. 

ANTI-CHRISTIAN, NOT. O. C. X, 4936-4937- In reply to 
certain criticisms of The Open Court, mistaking its attitude 
on religion and science. 

ANTI-VIVISECTION MOVEMENT, IMMORALITY OF 
THE. O. C. XI, 370-376. This artide was written to combat 
the ill-informed and sentimental exaggerations of the Anti- 
vivisectionists. We sometimes have to harden our sensibilities 
(as has the medical student in the dissecting room), but care 
should be taken not to let such a hardening become rudeness 
or vulgarity. No doubt the sentiment of compassion is good. 



but it easily leads to weakness. Where it hinders us from 
being courageous in the strtiggk after truth, the ant i -vivisection 
movement becomes positively immoral. 

ANTS. RELIGION OF. O. C. VIII, 4076-4078. Our conception 
of God must necessarily be human, just as other animals (if 
they couid do so) would form a God -conception in Iheir own 
image. This idea is illustrated in the fable of the religion of 
the ants, which is put into the mouth of a retired German 
professor, who finds that the ants' scripture begins with the 
sentence, "In the beginning was the Arch-Ant," 

ANUBIS, SETH. AND CHRIST. Fully Illustrated. The Sig- 
nificance of the "Spottcrucifix." 0. C. XV, 65-97. Explains 
the sipnificance of Anubis as a guide of souls through the 
land of the dead; of the Egyptian Setb as identified with the 
god of the Semitic invaders, being the same as the Greek 
Typhon, the ass-headed god ; the deity on the famous Spott- 
crucifix is compared to similar donkey-headed deities on the 
lead tablets found in (he Via Appia; and it is pointed out 
that this interesting scrawl is not made in derision of Christ, 
but is a monument of the Sethite faith, presumably drawn 
by a Sethite slave najned Alesamenos. 

APOCRYPHA OF THE OLD TESTAMENT, O. C TX, 4700- 
4702. Republished in altered form in The History of the Devil. 

ARGUMENT, THE HIGHEST TRUMP IN. O. C. VI, 3266, 
Republished in Twelve Tales. 

ARISTOCRATOMANIA. O. C. V, 2846-2847. Republished in 
Horn, of Sfi. 

ART, CLASSICAL AND ROMANTIC. O. C. 11, 1095-1098. 
Republished in Fund. Prob. in the two chapters, "The Im- 
portance of Art" and "Classical and Romantic Art." 

ART IN JAPAN, MODERN. O. C. XX, 24g- Brief note in 
explanation of four panel paintings by contemporary Japanese 
artists, reproduced as frontispiece. 

ASCENT OF M'AN. Illustrated. O. C. XVIII, i^S-iga Re- 
published in Rise of Matt. 

ASHVAJIT'S STANZA AND ITS SIGNIFICANCR 0. C 
XIX, 178-181. Republished in Dharma, 



98 PHILOSOPHY AS A SCIENCE. 

ASSOCIATION PHILOSOPHY, THE. O. C. VII, 3611-3612. 
Republished in Primer of Philosophy, 

ASSYRIAN POEMS ON THE IMMORTALITY OF THE 
SOUL. O. C. XIX, 107-110. Translation following Talbot. 
Beautiful poems illustrating the Babylonian belief in the im- 
mortality of the soul. 

AVATARS, THE. Fully illustrated. O. C. XI, 464-482. Re- 
published in Hist, of the Devil. 

AXIOMS. O. C. VII, 3752-3755. Republished in Prim, of Phil 

AZAZEL AND SATAN. O. C. IX, 4692-4693. Republished in 
Hist, of the DevU. 

BABISM; A NEW RELIGION. Illustrated. O. C. XVIII, 
355-372; 398-420. An appreciative and historical sketch of the 
youngest independent faith upon earth, which, like all other 
great religions, originated in the Orient, and has given promise 
to play no insignificant part among the religions of the world. 
Babism believes in a personal God and positive revelations; 
like other faiths in their beginnings it has thrived on martyr- 
dom. After giving the history of this faith in its home in 
Persia, this article is engaged in reviewing I. G. Kheiralla's 
Beha U'llah, The Glory of God, and a book by Myron H. Phelps 
on Abbas Effendi, "The Master of Akka," leader of one of the 
two great parties into which the adherents of Babism split 
after the death of its great exponent, Beha U'llah. 

BABYLON, HEALING BY CONJURATION IN ANCIENT. 
Illustrated. O. C. XXIH, 65-74. See s. v. "Healing." 

BABYLONIAN AND HEBREW VIEWS OF MAN'S FATE 
AFTER DEATH, THE. Four illustrations. O. C. XV, 346- 
366. The Hebrew view of the land of Sheol, abode of the 
dead, corresponds to the Assyrian Sualu. The Hebrews repu- 
diated the pagan practice of calling up the dead and com- 
municating with them, which appears to have been a common 
custom in Babylon. Passages of the Old Testament are quoted; 
Job xix. 25-27, wrongly translated in the authorized version, 
is explained; and the Babylonian belief in immortality is set 
forth in translations, especially the poem, Istar's Descent to 
HelL 



BAD FOR ME, BUT WORSE FOR HIM. 0. C. IX, 4509- 
4510. Comments on G. M', Steele's criticism of Fund. Prob. 

BALANCE OF THE HEART. Illustration. O. C XXH, 187- 
188. Brief note on the Chinese method of keeping a record 
of good and evil deeds. 

BANKING METHODS, TENDENCY OF PRESENT. O. C. 
XX, 185-186. Brief note on decision of New York and Chicago 
banks to charge exchange on checks from smaller towns. 

BARROWS. DR.. IN PARIS. O. C X, 49:1-4912- Citations 
from Dr. Barrows and Abbe Charbonnel in 1896 on the pros- 
pects of a Religious Parliament in Paris in 190a 

BATTLE OF SHIMONOSEKI. 0. C. XVII. 303-3<^. A ro- 
mantic incident ot dynasty wars in Japan, with an illustration 
of the ghost-crab, whose legendary story is connected with 
tile feudal history of Japan. 

BEHOLD! I MAKE ALL THINGS NEW. O. C. IX, 4343- 
4346. A New Year's meditation on religion, witli regard to 
the reformation of Christianity through higher criticism and 
a new orthodoxy. 

BELUGERENCY IN CHRISTIANITY. Illustrated. 0. C 
XII, 280-287. Republished in slightly altered form in Hist, of 
the Devil. 

BEN-MIDRASH. THE GARDENER OF GALILEE. O. C. 
V, 3019-3020. Republished in Crown of Thorns. 

BERKELEY'S POSITIVISM. O. C. VIII, 4042-4044. This 
article, occasioned by 3 passage in Mr, T. C. Laws's "Meta- 
physics of Herbert Spencer," maintains that, apart from a 
difference in method and (erminology, Berkeley's idealism is 
not far from agreement with the monistic positivism of Tht 
Open Court. 

BERNAUER, AGNES, See "Angel of Augsburg." 

BHAGAVADGITA, THE. 0. C. XX, 113-118. A recent trans- 
lation by Professor Richard Garbe of this canonical exposition 
ot Brahinanism, is accompanied by an illuminating introduction 
in the line of higher criticism. This article is 
review of Professor Garbe's work. 



loo PHILOSOPHY AS A SCIENCE. 

bible; the. Mon. X, 41-61. God is not like the pagan 
gods of ancient mythologies; he speaks to us in a spiritual 
way by the experiences we have in life and in the truths 
which we learn. The Bible, if treated as a secular book, a 
collection of records, on the same level with other books, is 
great and divine. But the moment it is literally or in any 
special sense proclaimed as the word of God, it becomes an 
idol full of ugliness and abomination. 

BIBLE AND FREE THOUGHT. O. C. II, 953-954. Repub- 
lished in Horn, of Sci. 

BIBLE, FAIRY TALE ELEMENT IN THE. Illustrated. 
^ Mon. XI, 405-447. See s. v, "Fairy-tale." 

BIBLE, PROFESSOR PEARSON ON THK O. C. XVI, 152. 
Note on Prof. Chas. W. Pearson's essay, "Open Inspiration 
versus a Closed Canon and Infallible Bible." 

BIBLE. See also "Old Testament Scriptures." O. C. XV, 156- 

175. 
BUSS OF A NOBLE LIFE. O. C. IX, 4749. Obituary of 

iMr. Eckley B. Coxe. 

BOLTZMANN, LUDWIG. O. C. XX, 759-760. Obituary Note. 

BONNEY, CHARLES CARROLL O. C. XIV, 4-8; XVII, 
513-519. The first of these articles is a summary of the life 
and work of the inaugurator and president of the World's 
Parliament of Religions at Chicago in 1893, and the second 
is an address of farewell spoken at his funeral. 

BONNEY, MRS. LYDIA PRATT. XVH, 37-51. A tribute 
to Mrs. C. C. Bonney and her influence on her husbands 
career, including a series of poems by Mr. Bonney, of which 
she was the subject 

BRAHMANISM AND BUDDHISM, OR THE RELIGION OF 
POSTULATES AND THE RELIGION OF FACTS. O. C. 
X, 4851-4854. The Vedanta doctrine of the atman or self is 
here discussed, as well as the Buddhistic denial of the atman 
theory, together with the views of Shankara, the reformer of 
Brahmanism and adversary of Buddhism — ^all in relation to 
modem psychology. 




BRAIN, COMPARATIVE PHYSIOLOGY OF THE. Illus- 
traled. O. C. IV, 2SSO-25S3. Republished in Soul of Man and 
in Psychology of the Nervous System. 

BRAIN, THE THALAMIC REGION OF THE. O. C IV, 
2269-2272. Republished in Soul of Man and in Psychology of 
the Nervovs System. 

BRIDE OF CHRIST. Fully illustrated. O. C. XXI, 449-464. 
Republished in book form under same title. 

BUDDHA, CHRISTIAN CRITICS OF, O. C. IX, 447S-44?a 
Republished in Buddhism and Us Christian Critics. 

BUDDHA-GAYA CASE. 0. C. X, 49S?-49S8. This is a brief 
account of the difficulties met by the Maha-Bodhi society and 
sympathizers in trying to establish a Buddhist center at Buddha' 
Gaya which might serve as a sacred place for devout Bud- 
dhist pilgrims. These tacts are accompanied by observations 
tending to console the disappointed enthusiasts with the thought 
that religion does not consist in keeping sacred certain days, 
places, or relics, and that there is but little satisfaction in the 
possession of a sacred place situated in a country of un- 
believers. 

BUDDHA OF KAMAKURA, THE. Illustrated. O. C. XXIIT, 
30?-3i3- A description with photographic iUustralions of the 
Kamakura and Nara Buddhas, two of the most interesting 
colossal statues of Buddhism. 

BUDDHA PICTURES AND STATUES. Fully illustrated 
O. C. Xn, 337-352. iMany of the illustrations have been 
reproduced in the Portfolio of Buddhist Art. Besides explan- 
atory details about the pictures, the article takes up the analogy 
between Buddhist and Christian ideas of Paradise. 

BUDDHA, THE TEMPTATION OF. O. C. XIX. 46. Brief 
note relating Ihe three temptations of the Bodhisattva before 
he attained Buddhahood. 

BUDDHA'S HYMN OF VICTORY. THE. O. C. XIX. 46-49. 
Gives Pali original and transcription, together with literal and 
poetical translations into English by A. J. Edmunds, Professor 
Lanman and also a new one by the author, set to music 
adapted from a German choral. 



I02 PHILOSOPHY AS A SCIENCE. 

BUDDHISM AND CHRISTIANITY. Mon. V, 65-103. Re- 
published in Buddhism and Its Christian Critics, 

BUDDHISAf AND THE RELIGION OF SCIENCE. O. C. 
X, 4844-4845. In answer to Mr. T. B. Wakeman's objections 
to the author's article, "Goethe a Buddhist" 

BUDDHISM, CHARLES GUTZLAFF ON. O. C. X, 4820-4821. 
Republished in Buddhism and Its Christian Critics. 

BUDDHISM, HINDUISM DIFFERENT FROM. O. C. XX, 
253-254. See s. V. "Hinduism Different from Buddhism." 

BUDDHISM IN ITS CONTRAST WITH CHRISTIANITY, 
as viewed by Sir iMonier Monier-Williams. O. C. X, 4783- 
4789. Republished in Buddhism and Its Christian Critics, 

BUDDHISM INTO JAPAN, INTRODUCTION OF. O. C. 
VIII, 4321-4326. A review of the history of this most important 
episode in the early life of Japan, corresponding in significance 
to the introduction of Christianity in Europe, as given in the 
History of the Empire of Japan, which was compiled and trans- 
lated for the World's Columbian Exposition in 1893. 

BUDDHISM, MYTHOLOGY OF. Illustrated. Monist VI, 415- 
445. Republished in History of the Devil. 

BUDDHISM, ON THE PHILOSOPHICAL BASIS OF CHRIS- 
TIANITY IN ITS RELATION TO. Monist VIII, 273-288. 
Contains extracts from early and mediaeval Christian literature 
bearing on the philosophical import of the soul. These extracts 
are from the collection of Prof. Rudolph Eucken of Jena and 
include quotations from Eusebius, Qement of Alexandria, St. 
Augustine, Scotus Erigena, Eckhart and Angelus Silesius. 

BUDDHISM, PHILOSOPHY OF. Monist VII, 255-286. Repub- 
lished in Buddhism and Its Christian Critics. 

BUDDHISM, REVIVAL OF. O. C. IX, 4525. A report from a 
Christian missionary journal contradicting the impression of 
many, that Buddhism is a moribund faith. 

BUDDHISM, THE RELIGION OF ENLIGHTENMENT. O. C. 
XVII, 567-568. See s. v. "Religion," etc. 

BUDDHISM TO CHRISTIANITY, MESSAGE OF. O. C. XX, 
755-758. Comments on the relation between these two greatest 
world-religions, including quotations from Prof. E. Washburn 



Hopkins to the effect that Christianity may learn from Bud- 
dhism the importance to many people of founding their formal 
religion on a strictly criticized belief. 
BUDDHIST ART. GREEK SCULPTURE THE MOTHER OF. 
Illustrated. O. C. XXII, 306-315. See s. v. "Greek Sculpture," 

BUDDHIST CONVERT, A. O. C XVI, 250-251. A brief 
sketch of the experiences of Ananda Maitreya (originally Allan 
McGregor) and his rejection of the doctrines of Christianity in 
favor of Buddhism, 

BUDDHIST POETRY, GEMS OF. O. C. XX, 156-167. An 
English translation in verse of about forty gems from the Dham- 
mapada, Sutta Nipata and other Buddhist scriptures. Repub- 
lished in The Dkarma. 

BUDDHIST REAWAKENING IN INDIA AND CEYLON, 
SYMPTOMS OF A. O. C. XII. 511-512. Report of Dharma- 
pala's Ethlco- Psychological College, and of the Sanghamitta 
School for Girls in Colombo. Ceylon, and of an increase of 
prosperity in the Maha-Bodhi Journal. 

BUDDHIST SOUL-CONCEPTION, IMMORTALITY AND 
THE. O. C. VIII. 4259-4261. The similarity between the Bud- 
dhist law of Karma and denial of the atman, with the monistic 
soul -conception of the rehgion of science, is dwelt upon. 

BUDDHIST TRACT, A. O. C. X, 5057-5062. Republished la 
Budd. and Us Chris. Crit. 

BUECHNER, PROF. L., ON RELIGION. O. C. II. 965-967. In 
review of a pamphlet, and comment on the definitions of 
religion there stated or implied. 

BUSCH, WILHELM. O. C. XXII, 128. i8i-t86. , The first is a 
brief obituary announcement ; the second, accompanied by a por- 
trait, contains biographical notes and a discussion of the sig- 
nificance of humor. Republished in Edward's Dream. 

BUSCH, WILHELM, A POEM BY. O. C. XXII, 447-448. Re- 
published in Edward's Dream. 

CAABA. THE. Illustrated. O. C. XVIL I5i-i5,l. Contains a 
view of Mecca and of the Caaba. The worship of the Caaba is 
a reiic of p re-Mohammedan religion. See also "Stone Worship." 



I04 PHILOSOPHY AS A SCIENCE. 

CANAVARRO, COUNTESS M. DE S.; A MODERN IN- 
STANCE OF WORLD-RENUNCIATION. Illustrated. O. C. 
XIII, 111-117. 

CAPITAL AND LABOR. O. C VI, 3258-3260. In the form of 
an exchange of thought between two workmen of a superior 
type, this sketch develops the problems of capital and labor. It 
explains how certain conflicts repeat themselves in history, and 
why some ideals of a definite settlement of the question are 
Utopian. It is further suggested that an improvement of con- 
ditions is taking place which is nothing less than the general 
increase in wealth which will change laborers into small capital- 
ists. When civilization has reached that stage the laborer will 
be able to look at the problem from both sides. 

CARNERI, THE ETHICIST OF DARWINISM. O. C. XV, 
641-644. 

CATHARINE OF ALEXANDRIA, SAINT. Fully illustrated. 
O. C. XXI, 664-677, 727-744. Republished in The Bride of 
Christ 

CAUSALITY, THE PROBLEM OF. O. C. II, 1200-1204. Re- 
published in Fund, Prob. 

CAUSATION, IS THERE ANYTHING UNKNOWABLE IN? 
O. C. II, 1254-1256. Republished in Fund, Prob. 

CAUSES AND NATURAL LAWS. O. C II, 1240-1241. Re- 
published in Fund, Prob. 

CELESTIAL LANGUAGE, GRAMMARIAN OF THE. G. R. 
Kirchhoff. O. C. II, 782-783. Kirchhoff's name is connected 
with that of Bunsen in the realm of chemical science. Perhaps 
their greatest service was in the perfection of spectral analysis. 

CEREBELLUM AND PONS. Illustrated. O. C. IV, 2255-2257. 
Republished in Soul of Man and in Psychology of the Nervous 
System. 

CHANDRA DAS BROTHERS. O. C. X, 4997-4998. Two native 
scholars of India and their work. 

CHANDRA, THE PESSIMIST. O. C VIII, 4107-4108. Repub- 
lished in Nirvana. 

CHARITY. O. C. VI, 3307-3308. Republished in Twelve Tales, 



CHARITY BALL, THE. O. C. XXI, 122-123. Explanatory note 
on the frontispiece, a reproduction of de Laubadere's painting, 
which exhibits the contrast of the charitable rich to the needy 
poor, represented In the picture by Christ himself. 

CHASTITY AND PHAIilC WORSHIP. O. C. XVH, 611- 
61?. The creative faculty is looked up to by primitive people 
with awe, and the figure which speaks of God as the Father, 
taken literally, sanctifies the mystery of sexual procreation. In 
its original sense it is by no means obscene, ajid we find traces 
of it in the Bible, where ths relation of Israel to God is spoken 
of as a marriage, and idolatry resented as adultery. Some 
ancient practices mentioned by Herodotus and others are quoted, 
and it is pointed out how the sanetification of the sexual instinct 
is of a religious nature, and this, in its best sense, is true 
chastity. 

CHICKEN AND THE EGG, THE. O. C. II, 854. A short 
article discussing the question of priority and solving it by stat- 
ing that neither the egg nor the chicken was first, but living 
protoplasm which, under certain conditions, produced the egg- 
bearing hen. 

CHILDREN, FEW HINTS ON THE TREATMENT OF. 
Monist IX, 234-247. Republished in Our Children. 

CHILDREN, MORAL EDUCATION OF. 0. C. XIII, 176-184- 
Republished in Our Children. 

CHINA AND THE PHILIPPINES, O. C. XIV, 108-no. Writ- 
ten in 1900. advocating an open-door policy in the Philippines. 

CHINA, BETROTHAL AND MARRIAGE IN. Illustrated. 
O. C, XX, 740-754. Republished in Chinese Life and Castoms. 

CHINA, FILIAL PIETY IN. O. C XVI. 7S4-?64. Republished 
in Chinese Thought. 

CHINA, RELIGIONS OP. O. C XVII, 622-624. Explanation 
of an old Chinese drawing reproduced, representing the three 
religions of China. 

CHINA. See also j. v. "Confucius," and "Corea." 

CHINESE ART. Illustrated. O. C. XXII, 364-375. Review of 
Hirth's Scraps from a Collector's Note Book and Giles' Intro- 
duction to the History of Chinese Pictorial Art. Contains com- 
ments on Prof. Giles' interpretation of the "Three in One" 



medallion; also a further exposition of the famous Wu Tao 

Tze Nirvana picture. 
CHINESE EDUCATION ACCORDING TO THE "BOOK OF 

THE THREE WORDS." O. C. IX, 456;-4573. Translation 

of this famous educational classic, preceded by some general 

remarks on Chinese civilization and literature. 
CHINESE FABLE, A, O. C. IX, 4622. A short fable, on which 

is founded the Chinese proverb, "When the bittern and the mus- 
sel fall out, ihe fisherman gains a prize." 
CHINESE LIFE AND CUSTOMS. Fully illustrated. O. C. 

XX, 545-5^4, 587-615, 668-684. Republished in book form i:nder 

the same title. 
CHINESE OCCULTISM. Illustrated, Monist XV, 50O-5S4- 

Republished in Chinese Thought. 
CHINESE PHILOSOPHER, GRAVE OF A. Illustrated. O. C. 

XXII, 695-700. A sketch of the Ufe and philosophy of Chou 

Fu Tsz, supplementing the account given in Chinese Philosophy. 
CHINESE PHILOSOPHY. Illustrated. Monist VI, 188-249. 

Republished in book form. 
CHINESE PROBLEM, THE. Fully illustrated. O. C. XV, 608- 

623. Republished in somewhat altered form in Chinese Thottght. 
CHINESE SCRIPT AND THOUGHT. Illustrated. Monist 

XV, 271-293. Republished in Chinese Thought. 
CHRISMA AND THE LABARUM. Fully illustrated. 0. C 

XVI, 428-439. The Chrisma or Christogram was the favorite 
Christian emblem in the fourth century. Its use is a Christian 
interpretation of a pagan symbol, known as the "labarum." Con- 
stantine made use of it before his conversion. Here the various 
probabilities of its origin are discussed in connection with the 
many associations in which it has been used. 

CHRIST, A MODERN. Harold Brodrick. 0. C. VII, 3S4S- 
3547. An account of one of many insane pretenders to the 
divine Sonship, but one of greater interest than most. He 
wrote a book containing much that is appealing and much that 
is beautiful, and it is to be regretted that we have not a care- 
ful scientific study of the pathology of his case. 



SUMMARIES OF ARTICLES. 



CHRIST AND CHRISTIAN. 0. C. XXII, 110-118. This article 
discusses the following topics; Christ and Messiah, Christos 
and Chrestos, Christ and Krishna, The Saviour Idea of Pagan 
Origin, No Exact Hebrew Equivalent for the Word Saviour, 
Nazarene, the Name Christian, which latter is a late Latin form 
of tiie second century. In The Open Court this title is errone- 
ously printed to read "Christ and Christians." 

CHRIST AND THE CHRISTIANS. A Contrast. O. C. VII, 
3'596-3?oo. Republished in The Religion of Science. 

"CHRIST." DERIVATION OK O. C. XXII, 3?6-377. A brief 
note supplementing "Christ and Christian" and in comment on 
the Hon. Willis Brewer's Egyptian derivation of the word. 

THE CHRIST-IDEAL AND THE GOLDEN AGE. O. C.XXH, 
328-339. Containing a metrical translation of Virgil's Fourth 
Eclogue written in 40 B. C, which reads like a prophecy of the 
coming of the Saviour. The poem is explained and the views 
about the expected saviour illustrated by other incidents of the 
time. Inscriptions call Augustus the Saviour, and Tiridates of 
Persia visited Nero the Roman emperor because he had heard 
that the Saviour had appeared on earth. 

CHRISTIAN AND BUDDHISTIC SENTIMENTS. O. C. X, 
4828. Republished in Bud. and lis Chris. Crit. 

CHRISTIAN CRITICS OF BUDDHA. O, C. IX, 4475-4478, 
4483-4485. Republished in Bud. and Its Chris. Cril. 

CHRISTIAN MISSIONS. Mon. V, 274-281. A debate before 
the Nineteenth Century Club of New York, with J. M. Thobum 
and R. Gandhi. 

CHRISTIAN MISSIONARIES IN THIBET, FIRST. Illus- 
trated. O. C. XII, 418-433- Comprising mainly quotations from 
Hue and Gabet's Travels in Tarlary, Thibet and China. 

CHRISTIAN SCIENCE AND THE REASON OF ITS 
STRENGTH. Monist XVII. 200-208. The Christian Science 
movement is the revival of a belief based upon certain experi- 
ences and to some extent justified by the remarkable events that 
have happened again and again under all zones and in all ages. 
Such beliefs crop out spontaneously whenever they are needed, 
and will disappear again when they have done their work. The 
significance of self-discipline and the power of mind has been 



io8 PHILOSOPHY AS A SCIENCE. 



unduly neglected by educators, physicians and other guides and 
advisers of mankind. To be sure, Christian Science has its very 
weak pointSj but it would not exist had it not a mission to 
fulfill. 
CHRISTIAN SUNDAY, THE. O. C. XX, 360-2,66. A comment 
on Dr. William Weber's article on the observance of Sunday. 
It is pointed out that the week is a non-Christian institution, 
and Sunday was celebrated as the day of Mithras. It is inter- 
esting to learn that in some ancient calendars the Chinese still 
call Sunday by the syllable Mih, which is an abbreviation of 
Mithras. 

CHRISTIANITY AS THE PLEROMA. O. C. XXIII, 177-188, 
219-230, 263-279. An essay on the origin and significance of 
Christianity published in book form under the same title. 

CHRISTIANITY AS THE PLEROMA. Monist XIV, 120-151. 
This article shows that the three essential doctrines of Chris- 
tianity — (a) Immortality, (b) Vicarious Atonement, (c) God- 
Incarnation — are pre-Christian. It is pointed out how Christian 
the spirit is of such pagans as Epictetus, Marcus Aurelius An- 
toninus, and even Julian the Apostate; and Seneca has seriously 
been claimed to be a personal friend of St. Paul. St. Anselm's 
reasoning in Cur deus homo is quite in line with pre-Christian 
religion. Instances of pre-Christian views of vicarious atone- 
ment are found among savages such as the Khond tribe of 
India. It is not denied that the nucleus of the Gospels is his- 
torical. The very passages which contain unfulfilled prophecies 
as to the second advent of Christ prove that at least parts of 
the Gospels are of a very early date. 

CHRISTIANITY, BUDDHISM AND. .Mon. V, 65-103. See 
s. V. "Buddhism." 

CHRISTIANITY, CORNER-STONE OF. O. C. V, 2986-2987. 
This is declared to be the spirit of Christ, which, however, is 
rather to be found in the bold scientific search after truth than 
in the blind belief of obsolete dogmas. 

CHRISTIANITY, GNOSTICISM IN ITS RELATION TO. 
Mon. VIII, 502-546. See s. v. "Gnosticism." 

CHRISTIANITY? HOW FAR HAVE WE STRAYED FROM. 
See s. V, Pro Dome. 



CHRISTIANITY IN ITS RELATION TO BUDDHISM, ON 
THE PHILOSOPHICAL BASIS OF. Mon. VIII, 273-288. 
See s. V. "Buddhism." 

CHRISTIANITY IN JAPAN. O. C. XX, 55. A short review 
of an article in a Japanese paper on Christian missions in 
Japan. 

CHRISTIANITY IN JAPAN. HISTORY OF. 0. C. XVI, 6go- 
693. Review of a German book on this subject by the Rev. 
Hans Haas. 

CHRISTIANITY, JEW AND GENTILE IN EARLY. Monist 
XI, 267-276. See s. V. "Jew." 

CHRISTIANITY, ORIGIN OF. O. C. XV, 235-241. RepuV 
lished in The Age of Christ. 

CHRISTIANITY, PAGAN ELEMENTS OF, AND THE SIG- 
NIFICANCE OF JESUS. Monist XII, 416-425. See s. -v. 
"Pagan." 

CHRISTMAS. O. C. HI, 1991. Republished in HoniUUs of 
Science. 

CHRISTMAS GIFTS. 0. C. I, 669-670. Remarks on the Christ- 
mas spirit and the right enjoyment of Christmas gifts, 

CHRISTMAS SONG, A GERMAN. 0. C. XXII, 768. A new 
Enghsh version of O Tannenbauin. 

CHRISTMAS, YULE-TIDE AND. O. C. II, 1367. 

CHURCH AND STATE IN FRANCE. O. C. XIX, 381. 

CIRCLE-SQUARER. THE. O. C. VIII, 4121-4125, 4130-4133. 
Republished in Twelve Tales. 

CLASSICAL AND ROMANTIC LITERATURE. Illustrated. 
O. C. XIII, 363-373. Comments on Goethe's "Nature and Art," 
including a translation of the poem. The article deals with lit- 
erary periods of "storm and stress" and the consequent reac- 
tions, and is illustrated by portraits of representatives of both 
periods in German literature, with special reference to their 
connection with Goethe. 

CLEAN MONEY. O. C. XXII, 125-126. An endorsement of the 
work done by Gean Money Clubs to prevent the circulation of 
filthy bills and contagion-carrying coins. 



CLEARNESS, THE IMPORTANCE OF, AND THE CHARM 
OF HAZINESS. O. C. 2933-2925. Clearness of thought, in 
spite of its paramount importance, is not always welcome when 
it destroys a long-cherished illusion which had appeared as 
something wonderful. It then produces a great disappointnient 
in our mind. The problem dissolves into nothing and we are 
deprived of the awe that we felt while thinking ourselves in 
the presence of some unfathomable mystery. This observation 
has its application especially in the religious field. 

CLERGY'S DUTY OF ALLEGIANCE TO DOGMA AND THE 
STRUGGLE BETWEEN WORLD-CONCEPTIONS. Monist 
II, 278-285. This article shows how religion depends on the 
prevalent world -conception, and with a change in our world- 
conception our religion becomes gradually modified. Such modi- 
fications have taken place from time to time; when, for exam- 
ple, the Copemican world -conception replaced the old idea of 
the flatness of the earth, and at present when the idea of evolu- 
tion renders our God-conception less childlike and more scien- 
The article points out that a clergyman need not be 



n his place and inter- 
without either giving 
■w or becoming hypo- 

o. c. VI, 3292-3294- 

O. C. II, 1458- 



obliged to surrender his calling becau! 
interpretation of religion, but may stay 
pret the old in the light of the ne 
offense to those who cling to the old 

CLOCK OR THE WATCHES, THE. O. 
Republished in Twelve Tales. 

COGNITION, KNOWLEDGE AND TRUTH. 
1459. Republished in Fundamental Problems. 

COGNITION, METAPHYSICAL "X" OF. Monist V. 510-S52. 
See s. V. "Metaphysical." 

COLUMBUS. CHRISTOPHER. O. C. VI, 3435-3437. A sketch 
of his life from the Encyclopedia Britannica, showing that what 
ever his views concerning saints and the magical powers of 
ecclesiastical ceremonies, he was a man who had unbounded 
trust in science. The famous painting "Columbus Ridiculed" is 
reproduced as a frontispiece to the first number of Vol. XXL 

COMPOSER IN THE PULPIT, A. Rev. O. H. P. Smith, O. C. 
XII, 696^599. 



CONCEPTION OF THE SOUL AND THE BELIEF IN 
RESURRECTION AMONG THE EGYPTIANS, THE. Fully 
illustrated. Monist XV, 40Q-428. Explaining the meaning of 
khat, ba. kkaibil, ka, (of the double), khu, sekhem, and ren; 
jtAat (the double body) ; 6a (consciousness) ; kkaiUt (the shade; 
a kind of ghost) ; ka (the double) ; khu (the spirit) ; tekhem 
(vitality) ; and ren (the name). Other terms such as maa- 
kheru, the transfigured soul : pat-ela, the eternal house ; sahH, 
the mummy, which means literally victorious or sainted ; the 
aKkh, or handle cross ; the let, or backbone of Osiris ; the 
feather of truth, and other symbols are briefly explained ; also 
extracts made from the confessions of a dead person indicating 
the moral influence of the Egyptian idea of immortality. 

CONCILIATION OF RELIGION WITH SCIENCE. O. C VI, 
3285-3286. A review of Lyman Abbott's Evolution of Chris- 
tianity. 

CONFUCIANISM AND ANCESTOR WORSHIP. Tllustraled. 
O. C. XX, 598-615, Republished in Chinese Life and Customs. 

CONFUCIUS ON MODERATION. O. C. XXII, 636-637. A 
note explaining the frontispiece which illustrates the parable of 
the three buckets from which the Chinese sage drew a sermon 
on moderation. 

CONGRESS OF RELIGIOUS SOCIETIES, AMERICAN. O. C. 
VIII, 4101-4102. An account of the rise of one of the move- 
ments which were the fruits of the Parliament of Religions. 

CONGRESSES OF ARTS AND SCIENCES AT ST. LOUIS. 
Mon. XIV, 779-783. Brief criticism and report of these con- 
gresses held 3t the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in igo4. 

CONSCIENCE, THE GROWTH OF. O. C. IV, 2598-26oa Re- 
published in The Ethical Problem. 

CONSCIOUSNESS, A MONISTIC VIEW OF. Mon. XVIII. 
30-45. In reply to Mr. W, E. Ayton Wilkinson's article on 
"Will-Force," and Mr. Montague's "Are Mental Processes in 
Space?" with regard to the part played by energy in psychic 
phenomena. Mr. Montague is a representative of the Oatwald 
theory of energetics. 

CONSCIOUSNESS, PROBLEM OF. Monist XIII, 69-79. Com- 
ments on Prof, Charles Sedgwick Minot's attacks on Monism. 



112 PHILOSOPHY AS A SCIENCE. 

CONSCIOUSNESS, SEAT OF. Illustrated. O. C. IV, 2523- 
2526. Republished in Soul of Man. 

CONSERVATIVE RADICALISM. O. C. IX, 4728-4732. Reply 
to Corvinus (pseud, of T. F. Mathias), who was a radical 
critic of the position of The Open Court, and maintained that 
it is in irreligion "that the hope of true morality lies." This 
article is a continuation of the argument given in "Not Irre- 
ligion but True Religion." 

CONSOLATION OF ERRORS. O. C VII, 3891-3893. A reply 
to the agnosticism of Mrs. Alice Bodington. 

CONWAY, MONCURE D., A MILITANT MISSIONARY OF 
LIBERALISM. O. C. XV, 374. A brief note of characteriza- 
tion. 

COREA. O. C. XVIII, 218-220. Outline of Corea's history with 
explanation of the philosophical import of the national coat-of- 
arms. Illustrated by picture of the emperor. 

CORTEX AND ITS RELATIONS. Illustrated. O. C. IV, 2326- 
2328. Republished in Soul of Man and in the Psychology of 
the Nervous System, 

COXE, ECKLEY B., OBITUARY OF. O. C. IX, 4749- 

CREED BUT FAITH, NO. O. C. Ill, i575-i577. Republished 
in Fund, Prob, 

CREED, THE REVISION OF A. O. C. Ill, 2075-2076. Repub- 
lished in Horn, of Science, 

CRISIS IN GREAT BRITAIN, THE. O. C. XV, 301-3". 
Comments on the Boer War. The English are not blamed for 
extending their influence in South Africa, but are criticised for 
using wrong methods. They would have attained their end 
better and more enduringly by peaceful methods. 

CRISPI, FRANCESCO, AN OBITUARY. O. C. XV, 645-646. 

CRITERION OF ETHICS, AN OBJECTIVE REALITY. Mon. 
I* 552-571. See s. V. "Ethics." 

CROSS AMONG THE NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS. Fully 
Illustrated. O. C. XIII, 296-312. 

CROSS AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE. Fully illustrated. O. C. 
XIII, 149-163. 



SUMMARIES OF ARTICLES. 113 

CROSS IN CENTRAL AMERICA. Illustrated. O. C XIII, 
224-246. 

CROSS OF GOLGOTHA. Illustrated. O. C. XIII, 472-484. 

CROSS OF JESUS, SHAPE OF THE. O. C. XVI, 247-249. 

CROSS, PLATO AND THE. Illustrated. O. C. XIII, 364- 

CROSS, REV. W. W. SEYMOUR ON THE PRE-HISTORIC 
Illustrated. O. C. XIII, 745-751. 

CROSS, THE WHEEL AND THK Illustrated. O. C. XVI, 
478-485. 

CROSS, THE. See also Alpha and Omega, Chrisma and the 
Labarum, Crucifix, The, Staurolatry, Evolution of Ornament, 
Fylfot and Swastika, Image-Worship, Seal of Christ, Seven the 
Sacred Number, Signets, Badges and Medals, Anubis, Seth, and 
Christ. 

CROWN OF THORNS. Illustrated. O. C. XV, 193-217. Re- 
produced in book form under the same title. 

CRUCIFIX, THE. Illustrated. O. C XIII, 673-690. 

CRUCIFIXION OF DOGS IN ANCIENT ROME. 0. C. XVI, 
249-250. A brief note in which this strange custom is explained 
as the substitution of an animal sacrifice for a human sacrifice 
to the sun-god. 

CUBA AS AN ALLIED REPUBLIC OF THE UNITED 
STATES. O; C. XII, 690-693. See s, v, "Expansion but Not 
Imperialism." 

CUSTOM HOUSE, OUR. O. C. XVI, 141-145. A protest and 
an incident from personal experience. 

DARWIN AND LINCOLN CENTENNIAL. O. C. XXIII, 124. 
Brief note accompanied by a rare portrait of Darwin in the 
prime of life. 

DE RERUM NATURA. Mon. App. to Vol. V, No. 2. Philo- 
sophical poem republished in booklet form. 

DEATH A FINALITY, IS? Illustrated. O. C. IV, 2185-2189. 
Republished in Soul of Man. 

DEATH AND IMMORTALITY IN ANCIENT EGYPT, THE 



114 



PHILOSOPHY AS A SCIENCE. 



CONCEPTIONS OF. Illustrated. O. C, IX, 4666-4670. Re- 
published in Hisl. of the Devil. 

DEATH AND RESURRECTION. Illustrated. Open Courl 
XIII, 495-503. This article contains reproductions of the cup 
o£ Boscoreale, the Thibetan skeleton -dance, and a Gnostic stone 
representing King Death as a skeleton, and points out that the 
Christian conception of death represented as a resurrection l^ 
Prudent ius has changed of late into the more spiritual hope of 
the immortality of the soul. 

DEATH AND THE DEAD, THE SKELETON AS A REPRE- 
SENTATION OF. Illustrated. O, C. XXII, 620-633- Writ- 
ten in refutation of Laufer's theory that the origin of our 
dances of death must be sought in Thibetan Buddhism. The 
Thibetan skeletons are reproduced and shown to be difTerent in 
meaning from the skeletons of the European middle ages. The 
Thibetan skeleton dance is described and representations of 
Vama, the god of death, reproduced. The skeletons of the cup 
of Boscoreale are not representatives of death hut of the dead, 
and also the Japanese ghost, which is not in skeleton form. 
There is no skeleton among Mara's army in the has relief of 
Buddha's temptation, and the Japanese ghosts are not skeletons 
but horrible- looking half-decayed figures without feet. 

DEATH, CHRISTIAN CONCEPTION OF. Illustrated. O. C. 
XI, ?S2-763, The early Christians believed in bodily resurrec- 
tion, but their art in the catacombs can be traced back to pagan 
prototypes. On some sarcophagi, pagan and Christian symbols 
are mixed. This is a supplement to "Death in Religious Art," 
and supplies many additional illustrations on the subject. 

DEATH, CONQUEST OF. O, C. Ill, 1967-1968. Republished 
in Homilies of Science. 

DEATH, DANCES OF. Illustrated. O. C. XII, 40-53. This 
article contains reproductions of woodcuts of the tifteenlh 
century of the pictures of Bazil, Massraann, Holbein, Abraham 
a Sancta-Ciara, etc, 

DEATH IN RELIGIOUS ART. Illustrated. 0. C. XI, 678- 
68s; XII, 752-763. The Greek conception of death is a genius 
with the down-turned torch. Hades is the place of torture and 
we have many illustrations of these scenes. The skeleton as 
representative of death appears in Christianity. The subject of 



demons and of hcl! is fretjuetitly represented in Christian art 
in cathedrals and in cemeteries. 

DEATH IS SILENT. BUT UFE SPEAKS. O. C. IX. A 
discussion of the subject of immortality based on a considera- 
tion of the nature of sou! as form. 

DEATH. LOVE, IMMORTALITY. O. C. II. 1324-1325, Re- 
published in Homilies of Science. 

DEATH, MODERN REPRESENTATIONS OF. Illustrated. 
O. C. XII, loi-iog. In modern times artists have given up the 
idea of representing death in the shape of a horrible figure. 
As an instance, the monument of Daniel C. French, and a 
German one dedicated to Emperor William, show death in a 
serious but not offensive form. M. Bartholome represents 
death as a house door in his famous "Monument aux morts." 

DELUGE LEGENDS OF AMERICAN INDIANS. Illustrated. 
O. C. XV, 758-760. The drawings on bark which relate a 
deluge legend of the Algonquins are reproduced, accompanied 
bjr an English version of the Indians' interpretation of the 
pictures. 

DEMONOLOGY. THE INFLUENCE OF ANCIENT GREECE 
UPON CHRISTIAN. O. C. X, 4867-4868. Republished in 
Hist, of the Devil. 

DEMONOLOGY, NORTHERN CONTRIBUTIONS TO 
CHRISTIAN. O. C. X, 4873-4877. Republished in Hist, of 
the Devil. 

DEMONOLOGY OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. O. C. 
X, 4988-499a Republished in Hist, of the Devil. 

DESIGN IN NATURE. O. C. IV, 2619-2&1. Republished in 
Homilies of Science. 

DESTRUCTIVE OR CONSTRUCTIVE? O. C. HI, 2107-2108. 
In answer to the criticisms of illiberal liberals, Mr. H. L. 
Green and the editor of FreeShoughl. 

DETERMINISM AND FREE WILL. 0. C. II, 887-888. Re- 
published in Fund. Prob. 

DEVII^CONCEPTION IN PROTESTANT COUNTRIES. 
O, C. X, 4930-4932. Republished in Hisl. of the Devil 




ii6 PHILOSOPHY AS A SCIENCE. 



DEVIL, REALITY OF THE. Illustrated. O. C. XIX, 717-736. 
Contains a number of pictures and material supplementary to 
the Hist of the Devil. Marlowe's conception is contrasted 
with the present-day humorous view of devil-lore, as illustrated 
by Tartini's dream. Additional illustrations of devils from 
many dates and climes are given and incidents are related 
which show how great the influence of the power of evil, per- 
sonified as the devil, has been in all ages. 

DEVIL STORIES AND DEVIL CONTRACTS. O. C. X, 4961- 
4g&6. Republished in Hist, of the Devil, 

DHARMAPALA'S MISSION. O. C. X, 5071. Contains a letter 
from the Anagarika Dharmapala announcing his mission to 
the United States. 

DHARMAPALA'S SCHOOL IN CEYLON. Illustrated. O. C. 
XX, 760-761. A short description of a school of traditional 
Buddhism in Ceylon. 

DILETTANTISM IN LITERATURE. O. C. Ill, 1708-1709. 
The dangers to the reading public from professional litterateurs 
who cater to popular taste from mercenary motives, and, on 
the other hand, from the ignorance of dilettanti; what is 
most desirable is a combination of the virtues of both classes. 

DISCOVERIES, NEW; HOW THEY AFFECT THE WORLD. 
O. C. X, 4821. Brief note on the various forms of recognition 
awarded R6ntgen*s rays on their first appearance before the 
scientific press. 

DISEASE, LATEST DEVELOPMENT OF AN OLD. O. C. 
VIII, 4163-4165. The strike of the American Railway Union 
in 1894 was new only in its peculiar combinations, but the case 
was as old as society, and the first great satire written upon 
it was "The Birds" of Aristophanes. 

DOGMATISM, A REVIEWER'S VIEW OF. O. C. IV, 2371. 
Republished in Fund. Prob. 

DOLLS' FESTIVAL, THE. O. C. XXI, 188. Note on the 
frontispiece, which is a picture of a party of Japanese children 
on the annual festival of dolls, celebrated March 3. An English 
version of a Japanese poem on the subject is appended. 

DOUBLE EAGLE, THE ANQENT SYMBOL OF THE. With 
illustration. O. C. XXIII, 57-58. Instance of a double eagle 



SUMMARIES OF ARTICLES. 117 



discovered on a German expedition into central Asia. A fur- 
ther illustration pertaining to the article, "The Persistence of 
Symbols." 

DOUBLE PERSONALITY AND DOUBLE SOUL. O. C. Ill, 
1948-1951. Republished in the Soul of Man. 

DOUBLE PERSONALITY, PROBLEM OF. O. C. II, 1178- 
1179. Republished in Soul of Man. 

DREAMS AND HALLUCINATIONS. O. C. Ill, 2024-2026. 
Republished in Soul of Man. 

DROSS IS DISCARDED, BUT NOTHING IS LOST. O. C. 
VI, 3244. An Allegory republished in Twelve Tales. 

DUALISM, COMMENTS ON MINOTS. Mon. XII, 69-79- 
See s. V. "Consciousness, the Problem of." 

DUNNING DEVIL OF CHINA AND JAPAN. One illustra- 
tion. O. C. XII, iio-iii. The picture, which is a reproduc- 
tion of a wood carving in the author's possession, is given a 
mistaken interpretation in this article. It is republished in 
The History of the Devil and there correctly explained as the 
devil, in guise of a monk, being a demon representing greed 
and hypocrisy. 



EASTER, THE FESTIVAL OF LIFE VICTORIOUS. Illus- 
trated. O. C XVI, 193-199. This article contains a transla- 
tion of Gerok's "Meditation on Death in a Cemetery,*' and 
shows how the Easter festival of the ancient pagans was 
changed to a commemoration of the risen Christ in Chris- 
tianity. 

EGO AS IDENTITY OF SELF. O. C. VII, 3900-3901. In 
comment on Mr. Thomas Williams's article, "Is Reincarnation 
a Natural Law?" 

EGOLESS MAN, AN. O. C. IX, 4657-466a An account of a 
pathological loss of conscious recollection, followed by a dis- 
cussion of a common error of psychologists by which the soul 
is identified with the ego. 

EGYPT, CONCEPTIONS OF DEATH AND IMMORTALITY 
IN ANCIENT. Illustrated. O. C. IX, 4666-4670. See s. v. 
"Death." 



ii8 PHILOSOPHY AS A SCIENCE. 



EGYPTIANS, CONCEPTION OF THE SOUL AND THE 
BELIEF IN RESURRECTION AMONG THE. Illustrated 
Mon. XV, 409-428. See s. v. "Conception." 

EIGHT-HOUR DAY, THE SUNSET CLUB ON THE. O. C. 
VI, 31 15-31 16. Report of a Debate in a Chicago club. Wm. 
M. Salter, Murry Nelson, Franklin MacVeagh, Geo. A. Schil- 
ling, Qarence Darrow, Frederick Greeley and Frank H. Scott 
are quoted. This report is followed by comments on the 
debate by Gen. M. M. Trumbull. 

ELECTION, THE. O. C. X, 51 18. A brief note, written 
immediately after the election of McKinley to the presidency. 

ELECTRICITY AND PHOSPHORESCENCE IN THE ANI- 
MAL WORLD. Illustrated. O. C. XV, 540-550. 

EMPEROR'S ORTHODOXY, THE. O. C. XVII, 146-150. 
Republished in Delitzsch's Babel and Bible. 

EROS ON THE SHIP OF LIFE Illustrated. O. C. XXI, 
245-248. A monument in Genoa representing the modem idea 
of immanent immortality and the Greek myth in which Eros 
descends to Hades and returns again. Pictures of analogous 
legends and of Christ's resurrection illustrate this short article. 

ESCHATOLOGY OF CHRISTIAN ART. Illustrated. O. C. 
XI, 401-412. The Christian doctrine of eschatology was more 
prominent among early Christians than it is now. It may be 
regarded as a proof of the genuineness of St. Paul's Epistles 
that he confidently predicts the near approach of doomsday, 
and believes that he and his congregation will live to see it. 
These views formed an important chapter in the Apocrypha 
of the Old Testament, but at present these visions have grown 
very pale and are no longer deemed essential doctrines of the 
church, at least among Protestants. 

ESPERANTO. Mon. XVI, 450-455. An account of the nature 
of the language, its endings and prefixes and general construc- 
tion. 

ESPERANTO, ILO AND MALAY. Mon. XIX, 430-432. This 
short discussion repeats the editorial position, that it would 
be as easy to construct an ideal plant as to produce an ideal 
language; that though theoretically each may be possible, prac- 
tically the idea is Utopian. In order to give both sides of the 



^ m 



Esperanto-IIo differences, the author quotes a German Esper- 
antist; the reform side is represented elsewhere in the same 
number. He also reports the suggestion of a Dutch gentleman, 
born and raised in Holland, that the Malay language possesses 
many characteristics necessary for an ideal universal language. 

ESSENCE OF THE DOCTRINE (with Music). O. C. XIX, 
1S2-J83, Republished without music in The Dharma. 

ETERNITY, A HYMN WITH MUSIC. O. C. XH. 243, Re- 
published in Sacred Tunes. 

ETHICAL PROBLEM, THE. Discussion with Mr. Salter. 
O. C. IV, 2549-2550, 2564-2567, 2624-2626. Republished in The 
Ethical Problem. 

ETHICAL SOCIETIES AND THEIR VIEWS OF ETHICS. 
O. C. VI, 314S-3147. In answer to Horace L. Traubel's criti- 
cism of former discussions of the author on the deficiencies 
of Ethical Societies, as they exist. 

ETHICS A LAW OF NATURE. O. C. IV, 2440-2441. Repub- 
lished in Fund. Prob, 

ETHICS AND NATURAL SCIENCE. 0. C. Ill, 1563-1566. 
Republished in Fund, Prob, 

ETHICS AND THE COSMIC ORDER. Mon. IV, 403-416. 
Criticism of Professor Huxley's position in his lecture, Esjo- 
lution and Ethics. 

ETHICS AND THE STRUGGLE FOR LIFE. O. C. IV, ZI37- 
2138. Republished in Homilies of Science. 

ETHICS, BASIS OF, AND THE ETHICAL MOVEMENT. 
O. C 2247-2248. Republished in The Ethical Problem. 

ETHICS, BASIS OF, AND THE LEADING PRINCIPLES 
IN. O. C. IV, 2574-2577. Republished in The Ethical Problem. 

ETHICS, CRITERION OF. AN OBJECTIVE REALITY. 
Mon. I, 552-571. Republished in The Ethical Problem. 

ETHICS IN OUR PUBUC SCHOOLS. O. C. V, 2816-2817. 
Summary of a symposium on the advisability of introducing 
ethical instruction into our public schools. This showed such 
diversity of opinion that it seemed to prove conclusively that 
ethics cannot be taught publicly without coming in conflict with 



I20 PHILOSOPHY AS A SCIENCE. 



some religious views. The question as to the proper medium 
for ethical instruction will be decided on the principle of the 
survival of the fittest 

ETHICS OF EVOLUTION. O. C. V, 3004-3005. Republished 
in Homilies of Swnce. 

ETHICS OF EVOLUTIONISM. O. C. VII, 3886. The theory 
of evolution is not compatible with hedonism, for the ethics 
of evolutionism must be based upon the fact that the fittest 
will survive in the struggle for existence, and in the long run 
the fittest are always the most moral. 

ETHICS OF KANT, MR. SPENCER ON. O. C. II, 1155- 
1160, 1165-1169; Mon., II, 512-526. See s. v, "Spencer." 

ETHICS OF STRUGGLE AND ETHICAL CULTURE. O. C. 
V, 3059-3061. Controversies of science and philosophy are 
compared to the ethics of war. 

ETHICS OF THE NEW POSITIVISM. O. C. IV, 2414-2415. 
In reply to Clemence Royer. Republished in Fund. Prob. 

ETHICS POSSIBLE, IS? O. C. XI, 295-308. In reply to 
<Mr. Antonio Llano. 

ETHICS, SCIENCE AND. O. C. (No. 167) IV, 2590-2592. See 
s, V. "Science." 

ETHOS ANTHROPOI DAIMON. O. C. I, 695. A short ex- 
planation of the Greek motto, which has often been used on 
the title page of Open Court catalogues. A further history of 
the sentence, ascribing its authority to Heraclitus, is given in 
O. C. XX, 42. 

EVENTS OF TO-DAY. O. C. X, 4804-4806. Editorial notes 
on Lord Salisbury's Turkish policy and on the unfair indict- 
ment of two mayors of Illinois towns. 

EVIL IN EARLY CHRISTIANITY, THE IDEA OF. O. C. 
IX, 471 7-47 18. Republished in Hist, of the Devil. 

EVOLUTION AND IMMORTALITY. O. C. I, 7^7^\ V, 
3044-3045. The first of these articles is an extended review of 
Mr. C. T. Stockweirs pamphlet. The Evolution of Immortality; 
the second is a brief note bringing out the beauty of the idea 
of immortality contained in evolutionism. "The soul can be 
made immortal and it is our highest religious duty to shape 



SUMMARIES OF ARTICLES. 121 



our lives with a constant outlook upon that which lies beyond 
the grave. The work to be done for immortality is the prob- 
lem, the aim, the basis of ethics." 

EVOLUTION, CONTINUITY OF. Mon. II, 70-94. The science 
of language versus the science of life, as represented by Max 
Miiller and Romanes. 

EVOLUTION, DOES UTILITY EXPLAIN? O. C. VI, 3314- 
3315. In comment on articles by Professor George Mivart on 
the subject of evolution and Christianity. 

EVOLUTION OF ORNAMENT. Illustrated. O. C. XVII, 
291-296. The cross is now worn as an ornament, which is 
the third stage in a process of evolution, of which the first 
stage is the use of the cross as a charm or amulet, and the 
second as a symbol of more or less mystical significance. 

EXPANSION, AMERICANISM AND. O. C. XIII, 215-223. 
See s. V, Americanism. 

EXPANSION, BUT NOT IMPERIALISM. O. C. XIV, 87-94. 
Remarks made at a debate before the Sunset Club of Chicago. 
A resume of the Open Court's position on territorial expan- 
sion. Other articles relating to our relations with Cuba and 
the Philippines are the following: "Cuba as an Allied Republic 
of the United States," "Americanism and Expansion," "The 
Filipino Question," "The Philippine Imbroglio," "Friends or 
Slaves," "Annexation and International Stealing," "Cuba as 
an Allied Republic," "How to Govern the Philippines." 

EXPERIENCE. O. C. VII, 3602-3604. Republished in Primer 
of Philosophy. 

FABLE. THE MIGRATION OF A. O. C. XI, 504-506. A 
fable from an old German print of 1483, which is in all essen- 
tials the same as the Chinese story, "The Man in the Well," 
a Sanskrit tale, imported into China about the eighth century. 

FAIRY TALE ELEMENT IN THE BIBLE. Illustrated. Mon. 
XI, 405-447. Fairy tales are not numerous in the Bible. There 
is only the fable told in Judges ix, 8-15, and yet the fairy talc 
element is not entirely absent. The myths of Egypt and Chal- 
dea have been toned down into rational and credible stories. 



122 PHILOSOPHY AS A SCIENCE. 



This article traces a number of incidents in the Old Testament 
to their Babylonian and Egyptian sources. It contains trans- 
lations of the Babylonian creation story, recorded by Berosus, 
in the seven cuneiform tablets of the Marduk myth (the trans- 
lation is given almost in full, mainly following Zimmern), 
Yahveh's fight with the dragon, as mentioned in Ezekiel, Job 
and the Psalms (mainly based on Gunkel). The two Hebrew 
creation stories are contrasted, and the work of the Hebrew 
redactor is appreciated as supplying the world-conception preva- 
lent for a thousand years. The second installment treats of 
the following subjects: The Babylonian legend of the deluge 
(quotations again mainly after Zimmern) ; deluge legends of 
classical antiquity; the pillar of salt called Lot's Wife; the 
story of the wise judge (Solomon) paralleled in India, Egypt 
and on a Pompeian fresco; the story of Joseph in an Eg)rptian 
fairy tale (original quoted in Petrie's translation). It is the 
story of Bata, i. e., Vatu, or in Greek *Atis. Potiphar's wife 
still reflects the old institution of matriarchy. The conclusion 
is devoted to the mention of the Queen of Heaven by Jeremiah 
and the lamentations for Tammuz by Ezekiel. The Song of 
the Well, mentioned in Numbers as a quotation from the Book 
of the Wars of Yahveh, is an interesting piece of folk-poetry, 
preserved by chance in the Old Testament. The romance of 
Mordecai is nothing less than a Hebrew version of the story 
of the saviour, Bel M'erodach, and Esther is the Groddess Istar. 

FAIRY TALES AND THEIR IMPORTANCE. O. C. IV, 
2537-2538. Republished in Homilies of Science. 

FAIRY TALES, RELIGION IN. O. C. XIII, 184-185. See 
s. V. "Religion, etc." 

FAITH AND DOUBT. O. C. V, 2822-2823. Republished in 
Homilies of Science, 

FAITH AND REASON. O. C VI, 3225-3228. A review of 
Fechner's Method of conciliating religion with science. Re- 
published in Ethical Problem. 

FATHERLAND, THE. O. C. XHI, 577-579- A few remarks 
on the significance of Germany for civilization, written as an 
introduction to a special number, made up wholly of articles 
on Germany. 



2424-2426, Z43S-243?- 



FECHNER, GUSTAV THEODOR. A Review of his Method 
of Conciliating Religion with Science. See s. v. "Faith and 
Reason," 

FECHNER'S VIEW OF LIFE AFTER DEATH. Mon. XVI, 
84-gS. The author agrees with Fechner's beliefs in the reality, 
the significance, the all-importance of man's life after death, 
but regards his description of the part consciousness plays as 
misleading. Doubtless a man's personality rem am s centered 
around his name and continues to constitute a unit of its own, 
but it is purely spiritual, not physical nor physiological. There 
is not the slightest warrant in ascertainable facts for Fechner's 
assumption, that after death, man's being is endowed with the 
functions of the entire nervous system, including sense-organs 
and brain. 

FEELING AND MOTION. O. 
Republished in Soul of Matt. 

FEELING AS A PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS. 0. C. IV, 
2506-2509. Republished in Soul of Man. 

FEELING THE MONISTIC DEFINITION OF THE TERM. 
O. C. V, 2909-2gii. After discussing the views of Spencer, 
Fiske and many others, the monistic definition is given as 
"the state of awareness only, which accompanies certain physio- 
logical activities, and not these activities themselves," 

FEELINGS AND THE ELEMENTS OF FEELING. Mon. I, 
401-420; III, 298-299. Republished in Fund. Prob. 

FILIAL PIETY IN CHINA. O. C. XVI, 754-764. Republished 
in Chinese Thought. 

FILIPINO QUESTION, O, C. XIII, 375-376. See also s. v. 
"Expansion, but not Imperialism." 

FIRST STEPS. O, C, XX, 49S-499. Republished in Our Chil- 
dren. 

FLAG. UNFURL THE. O. C. XII, 439-44'. A new patriotic 
hymn, with a final stanza on the Anglo-American alliance. 
This has been set to music by C, Crozat Converse and Oliver 
H. P. Smith and republished in sheet and octavo form. 

FOOD OF LIFE AND THE SACRAMENT. Illustrated, Mon. 
X, 246-279, 343-382. Euchaiists and ceremonial eating exist 



124 PHILOSOPHY AS A SCIENCE. 

among almost all nations of the world. The present article 
contains a synopsis of these ceremonies and traces them among 
Egyptians, Assyrians, Babylonians, Greeks, Thibetans, and the 
Mithraists, the worshipers of Bacchus, Dionysus, and of Christ. 
The Christian ceremony has apparently been introduced by 
Paul. The passages in the Gospels are later insertions, as 
proved by New Testament scholars. 

FORCE AND CAUSATION. O. C III, 1505-1506. Editorial 
comment on Mr. John B. Wood's essay. 

FORM* AND FORMAL THOUGHT. O. C. II, 1310-1313, 1336- 
1339, 1349-1351, 1369-1372. Republished in Fund. Proh, 

FORMAL, THE. O. C. VII, 3679-3682. Republished in Primer 
of Phil 

FORMAL THOUGHT AND ETHICS. O. C. Ill, 1613-1616. 
Republished in Fund, Prob. 

FRANKLIN SQUARES AND OTHER MATHEMATICAL 
DIVERSIONS, THE. Mon. XVI, 605-625. Republished in 
Andrews's Magic Squares and Cubes. 

FREEDOM OF WILL AND RESPONSIBILITY. O. C III, 
2095-2097. Republished in the S(>ul of Man. 

FREETHOUGHT, THE HEROES OF. O. C. II, 822-823. 
Republished in Horn, of Sci. 

FREETHOUGHT, ITS TRUTH AND ITS ERROR. O. C. 
V, 2902-2903. Republished in Homilies of Science. 

FREE-WILL AND COMPULSION. O. C. IV, 2332. Brief 
note in reply to a letter from Mr. T. G. Conant. 

FRIAR, THE. A Song. O. C. XIV, 305-312. Music by 
O. H. P. Smith. 

FRIENDS OR SLAVES. O. C. XVI, 146-148. An appeal to 
Congress in which self-government for the Philippines is ad- 
vocated. See also s. v. "Expansion, but not Imperialism." 

FULFIL, NOT TO DESTROY, TO. O. C. IV, 2235-2236. 
Republished in Homilies of Science. 

FYLFOT AND SWASTIKA. Illustrated. O. C. XVI, 153- 
162, 356-366. Showing how evidences of prehistoric use of this 
emblem are scattered in widely separated portions of the globe. 



SUMMARIES OF ARTICLES. 125 

The illustrations reproduce relics and monuments which bear 
the swastika as decoration. The original meaning of the figure 
is thought to be the same as the disk, a solar symbol. 

GALILEI, GALILEO. Illustrated. O. C. XXII, 1-13. A sketch 
of his life, including translations of the verdict pronounced 
upon him by the Holy Office, and his abjuration. 

GEMS OF BUDDHIST POETRY. O. C. XX, 156-167. See 
s. V. "Buddhist Poetry, Gems of." 

GENIUS, PLAYFUL INSTRUCTION AND. O. C. XIII, 566- 
570. Republished in Our Children. 

GEOMETRY, FOUNDATIONS OF. Mon. XIII, 370-397, 493- 
522. Republished in Foundations of Mathematics, 

GERMAN IN AMERICA, THE. O. C. XIII, 626-636. A pro- 
test against Mtinsterberg*s statement that German- Americans 
are responsible for lack of sympathy between the two coun- 
tries. America is entirely cognizant and appreciative of Ger- 
man science and character. Its assimilation of diverse na- 
tionalities into one people is destined to so merge its 
patriotism into cosmopolitanism as to cause it to advance 
beyond Old World nations. Though regarded as restless and 
fond of innovations, the character of the American nation 
is a conservatism unknown in Europe; e. g., its flag is one 
of the oldest in the world. See also "International Friendship" 
and "International Good-Will." 

GERMAN MONISTIC ALLIANCE, THE. O. C. XXII, 188. 
Review of one of their leaflets, written by Dr. Heinrich Schmidt. 

GERMAN UNIVERSITIES AT THE WORLD'S FAIR. 
Mon. IV, 106-120. The appointment and advancement of a 
professor of a German university does not depend upon his 
ability to teach, but almost exclusively upon his accomplish- 
ments in the field of research. German universities are in- 
stitutions devoted to the search for truth, and the scientist, 
the philosopher, the searchers for truth serve at the same 
time as instructors of the German youth. Their exhibit at the 
Columbian Exposition of 1893 was well planned and arranged, 
and we have here a brief review of this unique display of 
the ways, the means, and the summarized results of German 
science. 



126 PHILOSOPHY AS A SCIENCE. 



GERMANY, THE FATHERLAND. See s,v, "Fatherland, The," 

GHOST OF A LIVING PERSON, THE. O. C. XXIII, 231- 
232. Reporting an incident in which the ghost of the Rev. 
W. H. Withrow was made to appear in a mediumistic seance 
in Australia while Mr. Withrow himself was carrying on an 
active life in Canada. 

GHOSTS. O. C. V, 2811-2812. A review of Ibsen's drama. Re- 
published in Homilies of Science, 

GHOSTS AND THE BELIEF IN GHOSTS. O. C. VI, 3106- 
3109. In comment on the revival of spiritualistic beliefs and 
in reply to Mr. W. T. Stead and Mrs. Besant; also on a 
book of Mr. Gerhard, a Swedenborgian. Kant's Relation to 
Swedenborg is mentioned, and the statement as to the practical 
usefulness of clairvoyance is investigated and found wanting. 

GILGAMESH AND EABANI; THE TRUSTS AND THE 
UNIONS. O. C. XVIII, 291-292. The trusts and unions are 
likened to Gilgamesh and Eabani in the old Babylonian epic. 
We are told that a monster was created to overpower a tyrant, 
until finally both became friends, and then the world had no 
defender. 

GISSAC, R DE, OBITUARY. O. C. X, 5125. 

GNOSTICISM IN ITS RELATION TO CHRISTIANITY. 
Mon. VIII, 502-546. It is maintained and satisfactorily proved 
in this article that gnosticism precedes Christianity. It is here 
characterized as a period of storm and stress preparatory to 
Christianity. The fact is recognized by our best Church his- 
torians that gnostics existed before Christianity and were after- 
ward regarded as Christian heretics only when a catholic 
faith had been established. The trinity idea is mentioned in 
connection with Simon Magus before it becomes a Christian 
dogma. The Kabala was influenced by gnosticism, and the 
Essenes, as well as the Therapeutes of Egypt, are unequiv- 
ocally pre-Christian. The book of Daniel and the books of 
Esdras show innumerable influences of the gnostic spirit, and 
the Apostle Paul presupposes gnostic terms as well known. 
The Zabians or Baptizers had spread throughout the Jewish 
dispersion, and Paul was especially well received among them. 
The similarity of the Lord's Sacrament with the Mithraistic 
ceremony of the same kind is alluded to and the idea is 



SUMMARIES OF ARTICLES. 127 



proposed that the word tnissa or mass is derived from myazda, 
which is the food of the Mithraistic sacrament. Apollonius 
of Tyana studied philosophy at Tarsus, and we may assume 
that he cherished many ideas similar to those of St. Paul 
the apostle, who was born in the same city and owed his 
Roman citizenship to the honor which the Roman Senate 
wanted to bestow upon this pagan savior. Gnosticism is older 
than Christianity, which is really a gnostic sect, and it is 
maintained that it survived its rivals because it was superior 
to them. 

GOBINEAU, COUNT. With portrait. O. C. XV, 440-442. An 
account of the life and work of a French anthropologist, who 
has become an object of enthusiasm in German circles. 

GOD. O. C. IV, 2305-2306. Republished in Homilies of Science, 

GOD. A DISCUSSION. Mon. IX, 106-130. Republished in God. 

GOD A MIND, IS? O. C. V, 2978-2980. Republished in Homi- 
lies of Science. 

GOD AND IMMORTALITY, PROFESSOR HAECKEUS 
MONISM AND THE IDEAS OF. O. C. V, 2957-2958. A 
letter explaining the position of The Open Court on the sub- 
jects of God and immortality, and a reply from Professor 
Haeckel expressing agreement in essential points. 

GOD, CONCEPTIONS OF. O. C. V, 2771-277^- Republished 
in Homilies of Science. 

GOD, FREEDOM AND IMMORTALITY. O. C. Ill, 1625- 
i62iS. Republished in Homilies of Science, 

"GOD IN SCIENCE AND RELIGION,*' REMARKS ON 
CANON LOW'S. Mon. VIII, 610-615. See s. v. "Low." 

GOD, MR. SEWALL ON THE PERSONALITY OF. O. C. 
XXI, 506-510. In comment on his book, Reason in Belief. 

GOD OF ATHEISM AND THE IMMORTALITY THAT 
OBTAINS IN THE NEGATION OF THE EGO-ENTITY. 
O. C VIII, 4226-4229. A resume of conceptions of God and 
immortality which accord with evolution and the religion of 
science, written in answer to criticisms by Dr. Lewins, Pro- 
fessor Cook, Mr. Thurtell and Mr. Reeves. The conception 
of the super-personal God is especially dwelt upon. 



128 PHILOSOPHY AS A SCIENCE. 



GOD OF IRON, THE. O. C. XII, 188-190. A hymn suggested 
by a patriotic song of Arndt, written to arouse the Germans 
against their French enemies, but in this case the narrowness of 
nationalism yields to the broader spirit of international fellow- 
ship and religion. 

GOD OF SCIENCE, THE. Mon. XIV, 458-469. In reply to 
the Rev. H. C. Minton's reviews of Fundamental Problems and 
Surd of Metaphysics. 

GOD, PERSONALITY OF. O. C. XI, 618-635. Correspondence 
with Pere Hyacinthe Loyson. Republished in God, 

GOD, PERSONALITY OF. Mon. IX, 300-305. See s, v, "Per- 
sonality." 

GOD, RESPONSIBILITY OF. O. C. X, 4803-4804.. Comments 
on a sermon by the Rev. Geo. T. Smith, who, while recogniz- 
ing to some extent the identity of nature's God and nature's 
laws, looks upon God as a person — therefore responsible. The 
argument is given against the personality of God, that Bud- 
dhism, the greatest non-Christian religion, distinguished for the 
noblest moral maxims, yet knows nothing of the existence of 
a personal God. 

GOD, THE SUPERPERSONAL O. C. XXI, 765-766. Brief 
comment on a communication from Pere Hyacinthe. Repub- 
lished in God, 

GOD, UNMATERIALITY OF SOUL AND. Mon. VIII, 415- 
445. See s, V. "Soul." 

GODWARD. O. C. XII, 128. A hymn with music. Repub- 
lished in Sacred Tunes. 

GOEHTE, A BUDDHIST. O. C. X, 4832-4837. Republished in 
Buddhism and Its Christian Critics, 

GOETHE AND CRITICISM. O. C. XXI, 301-305. 
GOETHE AND SCHILLER'S XENIONS. O. C. I, 318, 320; 

yni, 3939-3940, 3948-3949, 3955-3957, 3965-3966. Republished 

in book form under same title. 

GOETHE MUSEUM IN WEIMAR. O. C. XXH, 126-128. 
An account of the establishment of Goethe's Weimar residence 
as a National Museum, accompanied by a picture of Eberlein's 



SUMMARIES OF ARTICLES. 129 

famous sculpture representing Goethe contemplating Schiller's 
skull, to which he addressed a poem. 

GOETHE, SOME EPIGRAMS OF. Illustrated. O, C. XXIII, 
438-443. An English translation of about twenty miscellaneous 
verses, accompanied by the German original. Three of them 
are illustrated. 

GOETHE, TWO PHILOSOPHICAL POEMS OF. O. C. XVI, 
694-696. Translation of and comments on "One and All," and 
"Bequest." 

GOETHE'S CONFESSION OF FAITH. O. C. XXI, 472-480. 

GOETHE'S FAUST, SIGNIFICANCE OF. Illustrated. O. C. 
XXII, 147-172. 

GOETHE'S MONISM. O. C. II, 782. Republished in Funda- 
mental Problems. 

GOETHE'S NATURE PHILOSOPHY. O. C XXI, 227-237. 

GOETHE'S POLYTHEISM AND CHRISTIANITY. O. C. 

XXI, 435-443. 

GOETHE'S SOUL CONCEPTION. O. C. XXI, 745-751. 

GOETHE'S VIEW OF IMMORTALITY. O. C. XX, 367-372. 
Above articles to be republished in book form. 

GOETHE'S VIEWS ON TELEPATHY. O. C. XXIII, 174-176. 

GOOD AND EVIL AS RELIGIOUS IDEAS. O. C. VIII, 4642- 
4644. Republished in History of the Devil 

GOOD AND EVIL, THE PROBLEM OF. Men. VI, 580-599. 
Republished in History of the Devil. 

GOSPEL OF BUDDHA, A JAPANESE TRANSLATION OF. 
O. C. IX, 4404-4405. Contains an English translation of the 
Rt. Rev. Soyen Shaku's preface to the Japanese translation. 

GOSPEL, THE FOURTH. O. C. XXI, 269-271. With special 
reference to Dr. Moxom's article, "Jesus's View of Himself 
in the Fourth Gospel." 

GOSPELS, THE SOURCE OF. O. C. II, 1079-1080. Professor 
Seydel of Leipsic advanced the theory that the Christian gos- 
pels were borrowed from the Buddhist sacred literature. This 
article quotes at some length the passage in which he defends 
his position. 



I30 PHILOSOPHY AS A SCIENCE. 



GRASSHOPPER, THE. O. C VII, 3663-3664. Republished in 
Twelve Tales. 

GREEK IDEA OF SALVATION. Illustrated. O. C. XII, 675- 
689. Republished in History of the Devil 

GREEK MYSTERIES, A PREPARATION FOR CHRISTI- 
ANITY, THE. Mon. XI, 87-123. Illustrated. Christianity owes 
a number of important terms to Greek mysteries, especially 
the very word "mystery" itself, and in addition such words as 
Parousia, L e., the act of becoming bodily present, ecstasy, 
teleiosis, or completion, etc. The Orphic songs foreshadow the 
Christian idea of the immortality of the soul, and Christ is 
represented as Orpheus in the catacombs. The main idea of 
the Orpheus ceremonials is his death and resurrection. The 
significance of the wine in the sacrament has also its pagan 
correlate in the cult of Dionysus, who was bom in a cave, 
tortured, slain, and rises to life again. He enters the city 
riding on an ass. But while the mysteries were communicated 
to a few initiates, the doctrine of Christianity was preached 
from the housetops. 

GREEK RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY. Richly illustrated. 
O. C XIV, 513-538, 577-606, 641-658, 7057733- Vol. XV, 1-22. 
A sketch of Greek religion which was written with the special 
purpose of showing how far the religion of ancient Greece 
was preparatory to Christianity. The last article contains 
numerous quotations which prove that the Christian idea "love 
your enemies" was plainly anticipated by a great many sages 
of ancient Greece. 

GREEK SCULPTURE THE MOTHER OF BUDDHIST ART. 
Illustrated. O. C. XXII, 306-315. Comparing remains of 
Gandhara sculpture with classical Greek art. 

GREEKS, THE. See also "Acropolis, The." "Demonology, The 
Influence of Ancient Greece Upon Christian." 

GRIEF AT UNBELIEF. O. C. VII, 3579-358a Unbelief, doubt, 
the spirit of keen criticism, should not cause grief in anybody's 
soul. Let him who doubts search for the truth, and he will 
find that it quickens and comforts. 



I 



GUNKEL VERSUS DELITZSCH. O. C XVIII, 226-241. An 
account of Professor Gunkel's true position with regard to the 
Babet and Bible discussion compared to the position ascribed 
to him by an uninformed anonymous translator. 

GUNNING, PROF. WM. D., MEMORIAL SERVICE TO. 
O. C. 11, 1278. 

HAECKEL AS AN ARTIST. Illustrated. O. C. XX, 428-433- 
A review of Kunstformctt dcr Nalur and WanderbUder. 

HAECKE^-LOOF CONTROVERSY, THE. Mon. XIII, 24-37- 
Republished in Cod. 

HAECKEL'S ANTHROPOGENY, PROFESSOR. O. C, VI, 
3125-3126. A brief note on Haeckel's monism on the appear- 
ance of the 4th edition of his Anlhropogeny. 

HAECKEL'S CONFESSION OF FAITH. O. C. VII, 3528-3529. 
Professor Haeckel believes that monism is the bond of union 
between religion and science, and is in sympathy, in spite of 
minor differences, with the efforts of The Open Court toward 
their amalgamatioa. 

HAECKEL'S MONISM. Mon- H, 59S-600. The conclusion is 
drawn that the main differences between Haeckel's monism 
and that of The MiOnist are differences of terminology. 

HAECKEL'S MONISM AND THE IDEAS OF GOD AND 
IMMORTALITY. 0. C. V, 2g57-2g5& See s. v. "God, etc." 

HAECKEL'S THESES FOR A MONISTIC ALLIANCE. Mon. 
XVI, 120-123. A criticism of Professor Haeckel's confession of 
faith as destructively negative in its statement instead of positive. 

HAMLET, THE HINDU. O, C. XXI. 359-363- Resemblances 
between Shakespeare's hero and the philosophy of the Bha- 
gavadgita. 

HAMMURABI. Illustrated. O. C. XVII, 274-280. Hammurabi 
is the Amraphel of Genesis, supposed to be a contemporary 
of Abraham. His famous code is here compared with the 
Mosaic law. 

HARD TIMES TEACH, THE LESSON THAT. O. C. V, 
3043-3043. The value of struggle, the errors of hedonism, and 
the need for only educational charity, are the main poinls 
touched upon. 



132 PHILOSOPHY AS A SCIENCE. 

HARMONY OF SCIENCE AND RELIGION. O. C. VII, 3553- 
3554. In reply to Mr. W. Stewart Ross of The Agnostic 
Journal, 

HARMONY OF THE SPHERES. O. C. I, 33-35- Astronom- 
ical laws relating to the symmetrical proportions of the plane- 
tary system are here summed up, establishing the harmony of 
cosmic laws. 

HARMONY OF THE SPHERES. O. C XX, 220-227. There 
is a harmony of the noblest aspirations among all the religions, 
and such a maxim as "Love your enemies" was echoed in 
ancient China by Lao Tze; in Buddhist literature by innumer- 
able admonitions to exterminate hatred and practice benevo- 
lence; and in Greek literature by Plato, who introduces in his 
symposium Demeter's glorification of love, which has rightly 
been compared to Paul's 13th chapter to the Corinthians. 

HARNACK, PROFESSOR ADOLF, ON THE RELIGION OF 
SCIENCE. Mon. IV, 494-506. A reply to Hamack's criticism 
of a review of his "Outlines of the History of Dogma," in 
which he confuses his reviewer with the editor. 

HARPER'S BIBLE CRITICISM, PRESIDENT. O. C. VIII, 
3996. A defense of President Harper's reverent spirit and 
sound scholarship against critics who expose their own ig- 
norance of the work done in the field of orthodox theology 
by accusing him of heresy. 

HAZING AND FAGGING. Illustrated. O. C. XXIII, 430-437. 
Gives some history of these customs from the times of the 
mediaeval universities. The illustrations are taken from con- 
temporary woodcuts. 

HEALING BY CONJURATION IN ANCIENT BABYLON. 
Illustrated. O. C. XXIII, 65-74. A small tablet coming down 
to us from Babylonian antiquity was thought to represent the 
soul's descent to the underworld, but recent investigation shows 
that it is probably a conjuration tablet, and the figure thought 
to be a dead body is probably the patient. Instances of con- 
jurations are quoted at length, the English version being made 
from Dr. Karl Frank's translation of cuneiform inscriptions. 



SUMMARIES OF ARTICLES. 133 

HEART OF MAN AS MIRRORED IN RELIGIOUS ART. 
Illustrated. O. C. XII, 236-242. Republished in History of the 
Devil, 

HEDONISM AND ASCETICISM. O. C. Ill, 1517:1518. A 
systematic conception of the universe is the theoretical, and 
ethics, the practical aspect of philosophy. Materialism pro- 
duces an ethics of hedonism or utilitarianism; spiritualism 
leads to asceticism. Monism rejects both views, for mere 
happiness will leave the heart empty, and asceticism is de- 
structive; while the performance of our daily duty, directed 
toward the progress of mankind, gives sufficient occasion for 
self-control and at the same time furnishes a nobler satis- 
faction, which is the highest kind of happiness. 

HEDONISM, MR. SPENCER'S, AND KANTS ETHICS OF 
DUTY. Mon. XVIII, 306-315. See s, v. "Spencers." 

HEGELER, GISELA. O. C. VI, 3279-3280. An address de- 
livered at the funeral of the daughter of Mr. E. C. Hegeler. 

HEGELER, MUS. E. C, A TRIBUTE TO. O. C. XXII, 385- 
386. A funeral address. 

HEMISPHERIC REGION, THE. Illustrated. O. C. IV, 2295- 
2298. Republished in Soul of Man and in Psychology of the 
Nervous System. 

HENISM, THE WRONG METHOD OF. O. C. VIII, 4067- 
4068. In answer to Paul R. Shipman's "Suggestions Touching 
Matter and Energy." 

HERACLITUS ON CHARACTER. O. C. XX, 42-44. With 
special reference to the Platonic God-conception; see also s. v, 
"Ethos Anthropoi Daimon." 

HEREDITY AND THE A PRIORI. O. C. IX, 4540-4541. In 
reply to Mr. Ellis Thurtell, who condemns a criticism of 
Lewis's and Spencer's reconciliation of the a priori and a poste- 
riori schools. 

HEWAVITARNE, THE MUDALIYAR. O. C. XX, 314-31S. 
An obituary note on the death of the father of Dharmapala. 

HIGHER HUMANITY, AN INSTANCE OF. O. C. Ill, 1616. 
A brief note on the man-of-war Trenton. 



134 PHILOSOPHY AS A SCIENCE. 

HINDUISM DIFFERENT FROM BUDDHISM. O. C. XX, 
^SS'^SA' Sums up in a few words the characteristic differences 
between Hinduism, Buddhism and Theosophy. 

HISTORY IS TRANSFIGURED BY MYTH, HOW. O. C 
XVIII, 690694. Republished in The Story of Samson. 

HOKUSAI; JAPANESE ARTIST. With portrait. O. C. XVI, 
440-441. Review of C. J. Holmes's Hokusai. 

HOLTZMANN, HEINRICH JULIUS. O. C XVI, 257-262. 
An account of the life and work of this representative of the 
German school of New Testament critics ; his portrait serves 
as frontispiece. 

HOLY EDICT OF K'ANG-HI; A CHINESE ANTI-MACH- 
lAVELLI. Mon. XIV, 7Z7'7Al^' K'ang-Hi, one of the 
most famous Mongol emperors of China, took his duty as 
emperor very seriously, and published an edict which has 
become a classical expression of good government. The pres- 
ent article contains Chinese text, translation, and explanatory 
comments. 

HOLYOAKE, G. J., SECULARISM OF. O. C. X, 5092-5094. 
The significance of "secularism" and the difference between it 
and the "religion of science." 

HUNGER AFTER RIGHTEOUSNESS, THE. O. C. IV, 2165- 
2166. Republished in Homilies of Science, 

HUXLEY'S CHURCH, PROFESSOR. O. C. Ill, 1590. A 
quotation from Huxley's "Administrative Nihilism." 

HYPNOTISM, DANGERS OF. O. C. IV, 2160-2161. 
HYPNOTISM, SIGNIFICANCE OF. O. C. IV, 2129-2131. 
HYPNOTISM, WHAT IS IT? O. C. Ill, 1958-1961. Foregoing 
three articles republished in Soul of Man. 

IDEAS, ASSAY OF ABSTRACT. O. C. II, 1422. Brief note 
on David Newport's essay, "The Self-Evident." 

IDEAS, LIFE AND GROWTH OF. O. C. I, 756-757- The law 
of conservation of energy holds good in the intellectual realm 
as well as the material. See also "It Thinks." 

IDEAS, THEIR ORIGIN AND DESTINY. O. C. VII, 3529- 
3532. Republished in Primer of Philosophy, 



IDEALISM AND REALISM. O. C. III. 1553-1554. Referring 
to an essay of M. Binet on "Sensation and the Outer World." 

IDEALISM, REALISM AND MONISM. O. C. II, gig-gii. 
The history of modern philosophy begins with Descaries and 
his famous "Cogito ergo sum," and since then modem philos- 
ophy has been called idealism. As idealism assumes the ex- 
istence of the ego, or the subject, so realism assumes the 
existence of things or objects. In monism both idealism and 
realism are reconciled, while spiritualism and materialism, rep- 
resenting the wrong conclusions of the one-sided assumption 
of idealism and realism, find their refutation. 

IDENTITY IN CHANGE. O. C. X, 4764-4765. la answer to 
Mrs. Hopper's question, Can there be a new Christianity? 
Rituals and symbols vary according to taste and historical 
tradition, but the essence of religion must remain the same. 

IDOLATRY. O. C. VII, 3619-3620, The idolatry of the dog- 
matists is an anachronism ; the idolatry of the idea -worshiper 
is a degeneration ; and, while avoiding the former, care should 
be taken not to fall into the latter. 

IGNORAMUS AND INVENIEMUS, NOT IGNORABIMUS 
OR INVENIMUS. O. C. II, 903. With each new problem 
solved, new problems will arise, but none of Ihem need prove 
unsolvable. 

IGOROT, THE. Full page illustrations. O. C. XIX, 113-126. A 
brief note on a savage tribe from a remote corner of the 
Philippines, accompanied by a do/en or more pholographs of 
the group exhibited in the anthropological department of the 
St. Louis Exposition of 1904. 

IMAGE WORSHIP. O. C. XIX, 21-25. Treats particularly of 
the iconoclasm of early Christianity, its hatred of pagan idola- 
try, and the development of Christian symbolism. 

IMMORAUTY AS A PHILOSOPHIC PRINCIPLE. With 
portraits. Mon. IX. 572-616. A discussion of Frederick 
Nietzsche and his philosophy, considering the subjects, Nietzsche's 
Emotionalism, Nietzsche the Nominalist. A Philosophy of 
Originality, Nietzsche's Zarathrustra, A Protest Against Him- 
self. Another Nietzsche (George M'oore), Nietzsche's Disciples. 



136 PHILOSOPHY AS A SCIENCE. 

IMMORTALITY. O. C. XII, 58. A hymn with music Repub- 
lished in Sacred Tunes, 

IMMORTALITY A SCIENTIFIC TRUtH. O. C. VIII, 4155- 
4157. Mos of this has been republished in Religion of Science. 

IMMORTALITY AND SCIENCK O. C. V, 3022-3026. Repub- 
lished in Homilies of Science, 

IMMORTALITY AND THE BUDDHIST SOUL-CONCEF- 
TION. See s. v, "Buddhist Soul-Conception." 

IMMORTALITY IN ANCIENT EGYPT, CONCEPTION OF. 
Illustrated. O. C. IX, 4666-4670. Republished in History of 
the Devil 

IMMORTALITY OF THE SOUL O. C. XIX, 363-36a A 
reply to Mr. Thaddcus B. Wakeman, with relation to Dr. 
Funk's The Widovfs Mite, The central thought is ihat "it 
is even better that man should believe in a mythical immor- 
tality than that he should deny the truth of the myth itself." 

IMMORTALITY OF THE SOUL, ASSYRIAN POEMS ON 
THE. O. C. XIX, 107-110. Translations of prayers for the 
dying soul which have been found on ancient monuments. 

IMMORTALITY, SPIRITISM AND. O. C. II, 1360-1362. See 
s, V, "Spiritism." 

INDIVIDUAL IMPETUS, IMPORT OF. O. C. IX, 4444-4446. 
Reply to a review of Primer of Philosophy, by Prof. John 
Dewey, emphasizing especially the importance of individuality 
in the evolution of thought. 

INDONESIAN LEGEND OF NABI ISA. O. C. XXII, 499- 
502. A story of the Prophet Jesus retold in the style of the 
Buddhist Jatakas, which reached the island of Java through 
natives and not through Europeans. 

INFINITE A RELIGIOUS IDEA, IS THE? O. C. V, 2732- 
2733. Republished in Homilies of Science, 

INFINITUDE AND ETERNITY. O. C. II, 870-872. Re- 
published in Fund, Prob, 

INQUISITION, IS THE CHURCH RESPONSIBLE FOR 
THE? Fully illustrated. O. C. XI, 226-243. Quotes Catholics 
of to-day to show diversity of views with regard to the 



SUMMARIES OF ARTICLES. i37 

Reformation and Inquisition. Illustrations have been in- 
corporated in Hist, of the Devil 

INSTRUCTION, PLAYFUL, AND GENIUS. O. C. XIII, 
566-570. See s, V, "Genius." 

INTERNATIONAL FRIENDSHIP, FOR A RE-ESTABLISH- 
MENT OF. O. C. XIII, 405-410. Urging the desirability of 
good feeling between Germany, England and America. Written 
in comment on Wm. Vocke's "Timeo Danaos." See also 

. "German in America, The" and "International Good-Will." 

INTERNATIONAL GOOD-WILL. O. C. XIII, 373-375. With 
reference to the trouble with the Germans in Manila after the 
Spanish-American War. See also "German in America, The" 
and "International Friendship." 

INTERNATIONAL LANGUAGE. Ostwald's Pamphlet on 
Universal Language. Mon. XIV, S91-596. Pasigraphy. Mon. 
XIV, 565-582. Esperanto. Mon. XVI, 450-455. Philologists' 
Views on Artificial Languages. Mon. XVI, 610-618. Esper- 
anto, Ilo and Malay. Mon. XIX, 430-432. 

INVINCIBLE ARMADA, THE. O. C. XXIII, 305-306. Bow- 
ring's translation of Schiller's verses, in which the poet echoes 
the deep-seated sympathy of his people with the liberty-loving 
spirit of England in the sixteenth century. 

"IS" AND THE "OUGHT " THE. O. C. VI, 3i95-3i97. Re- 
published in Ethical Problem. 

IS DOCTOR CARUS A THEIST? Mon. IX, 626-628. Reply 
to Amos Waters. Republished in God. 

ISSA, THE LIFE OF. Mon. V, 116-119. A review of a book 
by Nicolas Notovitch, purporting to be a life of Christ, and 
the reason it is a fraud. 

"IT THINKS." O. C. I, 640. Comments on a dictum of Lich- 
tenburg. We imagine that we think when really thoughts 
arise in us according to irrefragable laws. 

JAMES, A LETTER FROM PROFESSOR. Mon. XIX, 156. 
Professor James* comments on Professor Edwin Tausch's 
psychological analysis of his mental makeup in "William 
James, The Pragmatist." 



{ 



138 PHILOSOPHY AS A SCIENCE. 

JAPAN. See also "Battle of Shimonoseki," "Hokusai," "Strug- 
gle in the Far East," "The Yellow Peril." 

JAPAN, CHRISTIANITY IN. O. C. XX, 55- See s. v. 

"Christianity." 

JAPAN, HISTORY OF CHRISTIANITY IN. O. C. XVI, 
690-693. See s. V. "Christianity." 

JAPAN, INTRODUCTION OF BUDDHISM INTO. See s. v. 

"Buddhism." 

JAPAN, MEMORIAL ADDRESSES IN. O. C. XXIII, 383. 
Brief note on the custom of personally addressing the spirits 
of the dead on definite memorial days, quoting from such a 
representative oration. 

JAPAN, MODERN ART IN. O. C. XX, 249. See s. v, 
"Art." 

JAPAN, PHILOSOPHY IN. Mon. IX, 273-281. See s. v. 
"Philosophy." 

JAPANESE EDUCATION. O. C. XX, 573-574- A brief note 
containing a portion of a document issued by the State Min- 
ister of Education, in which he denounces the inclination of 
the younger generation to accept along with Western views 
the looser conception of moral maxims. 

JAPAN'S SEVEN JOLLY GODS. Illustrated. O. C. XXIII, 
49-56. The seven gods of bliss are compared with the seven 
gods of ancient Babylon and the Aryan deities which give us 
the names of the days of our week. While the educated 
classes in Japan have accepted the philosophy based either on 
Confucian ideals of ethical culture or upon the Buddhist world- 
conception, the common people still continue to practice what 
appears to Europeans as idolatry. The characteristics of each 
of these seven gods are enumerated, and the illustrations show 
how they are exemplified in popular tradition by the artists of 
the people. 

JAPANESE LEADERS. Illustrated. O. C. XVIII, 454-478. 

Some account of the history of Japan and portraits of the 

leading characters in the Russo-Japanese war. 
JENKINS, RICHARD, NOMOTHEISM OF. O. C. XII, 379- 

381. Comment on a criticism of the editorial position with 

regard to a superpersonal deity. 



i 



SUMMARIES OF ARTICLES. 139 

JESUS, PERSONALITY OF, AND HIS HISTORICAL RE- 
LATION TO CHRISTIANITY. Mon. X, 573-6io. The his- 
toricity of Jesus is insisted upon and his personality sympa- 
thetically characterized by the greatest New Testament text 
authorities, especially Professor Holtzmann. Contents: The 
Nazarene, Historical Sources, Characteristic Points in the 
Religion of Jesus, Jesus the Man and His Method of Teach- 
ing, Crucifixion and Resurrection (the successive stages in 
the development of the belief in bodily resurrection are 
pointed out). Cause of the Success of the Gospels (their 
superiority to gnostic views, such as the religion of Simon 
Magus, and of the life they portray, to the life of Apollonius 
of Tyana), Changes in the Evolution of Christianity (Jewish, 
Roman, Teutonic). 

JEW AND GENTILE IN EARLY CHRISTIANITY. Mon. 
XI, 2^y-27^, The Jews in the dispersion were greatly in- 
fluenced by pagan thought, especially with the form of Gnos- 
ticism, and also of Mazdaism, and Paul is a typical instance 
among them. His Christianity was different from the com- 
munistic society of Jew Christians at Jerusalem. He prides 
himself that he did not receive the gospel of man, viz., of 
Peter, or the other Jew Apostles at Jerusalem, and he asserts 
his apostleship on his vision alone (Gal. i, 17-20, and ii, 9-12). 
The Jew Christians, also called Nazarenes, remained Jews 
and were regarded as heretics by the Gentile Christian church. 

JODL, IN ANSWER TO PROFESSOR. O. C. IV, 2654-2656. 
Republished in Ethical Problem. 

JOHNSTON, MR. CHARLES, VEDANTISM OF. O. C. XX, 
92-94. Mr. Johnston sees in Vedantism the acme of Indian 
thought, while Dr. Cams regards it merely as a stepping- 
stone to Buddhism. 

JOLIET, A VISIT TO. O. C. IV, 2538. A few words about a 
meeting with the diicago anarchists confined in the peni- 
tentiary. 

JUBILATE. O. C. VIII, 4047-4051. A sermon delivered at 
Unity Church, Chicago. Religion must have sentiment with- 
out being sentimental; must be rational, but not rationalistic; 
must be applied to practical life. 



I40 PHILOSOPHY AS A SCIENCE. 



JUDSON, H. D., RAILROAD ETHICS OF. O. C X, 5025- 
5030. An address delivered by an agent of the C. B. & Q. 
road breathes a wise spirit, differing from that shown by most 
railway managements. It is introduced by editorial remarks. 

JUSTICE. O. C. VII, 3535-3539. Criticism of Herbert Spencer's 
book, Justice, and an article on the same subject by Mr. 
Salter. 

JUSTICE, ITS NATURE AND ACTUALIZATION. O. C 
XXI. In reply to Dr. Lindorme's "Law and Justice." 

KAMO NO CHOMEI, MEMOIRS OF. O. C. XVI, 252-253. 
A review of a German translation of K. N. C*s Ho Jo Ki, 
which appeared under the title Eine Kleine Hiitte, 

KAN YING FIEN, THE TREATISE ON RESPONSE AND 
RETRIBUTION. O. C. XIX, 477-493- Republished in book 
form under the title, T'ai Shang Kan Ying P'ien, 

KANT, MR. SPENCER ON THE ETHICS OF. O. C. II, 
1155-1160, 1165-1169; Mon. II, S12-S26, See s, v, "Spencer." 

KANT ON EVOLUTION. O. C. IV, 2492-2497. Republished 
in Kant and Spencer, 

KANT'S ETHICS OF DUTY, MR. SPENCER'S HEDONISM 
AND. Mon. XVIII, 306-315. See s. v. "Spencer's." 

KANT'S PHILOSOPHY CRITICALLY EXAMINED. Mon. 
XII, 181-214. Republished in Kanfs Prolegomena. 

KANT'S SIGNIFICANCE IN THE HISTORY OF PHIL- 
OSOPHY. Illustrated. Mon. XII, 80-104. Republished in 
Kanfs Prolegomena. 

KARMA. O. C. VIII, 4217-4221. A tale with a moral, repub- 
lished in Karma, 

KARMA AND NIRVANA. Mon. IV, 417-439- Republished in 
Buddhism and Its Christian Critics. 

KARMA, ANOTHER BUDDHIST SONG. O. C. XIX, 49, 50. 
The Buddhist law of deeds in verse, and set to music. 

KELVIN, LORD; WILLIAM THOMSON. Obituary Note. 

Mon. XVIII, 151-152. 
KIRCHHOFF, G. R., GRAMMARIAN OF THE CELESTIAL 

LANGUAGE. O. C. II, 782-783. See s, v. "Celestial." 



SUMMARIES OF ARTICLES. 141 

KNOWLEDGE. O. C. VII, 3588-3589. Republished in Prim, 
af Phil. 

KOERNER, GUSTAV; IN MEMORIAM. O. C. X, 4879. 

LABOR-DAY. O. C. VIII, 4207-421 1. Discusses the curse of 
labor as drudgery, the origin and nature of labor, the bless- 
ings of labor, the dignity of labor, and the problem of labor. 

LAO-TZE. O. C. XII, 306-308. An extensive review of Lao- 
Tze*s Tao-Teh-King, dwelling upon the significance of Lao- 
Tze in the thought of the world. 

LAO-TZE IN HIS DESOLATION. O. C XXII, 376. Ex- 
planatory of the frontispiece. 

LAO-TZE, THE PHILOSOPHER ADRIFT. O. C. XXIII, 
447. Brief note in explanation of Murato Tanryo's painting, 
which is used as frontispiece. 

LAO-TZES TAO-TEH-KING. O. C. X, S136-5139; 5146-5149. 
Republished in book of the same title. 

LAO-TZES TAO-TEH-KING, AUTHENTICITY OF. Mon. 
XI, 574-601. A discussion of Professor Giles* higher criticism 
of the Chinese classic partly incorporated in Lao-Tze^s Tao- 
Teh-King. 

LAO-TZES TAO-TEH-KING, MEDHURST'S NEW TRANS- 
LATION OF. O. C. XX, 174-181. See s. v. "Medhurst." 

LAU-TSZES TAU-TEH-KING: The Old Philosopher's Clas- 
sic on Reason and Virtue translated. Mon. VII, 571-601. 
Republished in Lao-Tee's Tao-Teh-King, and Canon of Reason 
and Virtue. 

LAUGHING, ON^ THE PHILOSOPHY OF. Mon. VIII, 250- 
272. Laughing is the privilege of man; it is an outburst of 
sentiment, but limited to the realm of rational mentality. 
Here the origin and meaning of the human laugh are char- 
acterized in outline, and other pertinent questions are dis- 
cussed. 

LAW, AUTHORITY OF THE MORAL O. C. IV, 2606-2608. 
Republished in Ethical Problem. 

LAY CHURCH, FOUNDATION OF A., O. C. XVII, 52-54. 
A suggestion ^y which to revive, modernize and sustain church 



142 PHILOSOPHY AS A SCIENCR 

life; a program for the establishment of an organization for 
the benefit of people over whom the churches have lost their 
influence. 

LETHARGY, CATALEPSY AND SOMNAMfeULISM. Illus- 
trated. O. C. Ill, 1972- 1976. Republished in Soul of Man. 

LIBERAL CONGRESS, THE. See s. v. "Liberal Religious 
Societies.*' 

LIBERAL RELIGION, THE GROUND OF ALL O. C. Ill, 
2013-2014. Notes on an essay under this title by F. E. Abbot 
in the Unitarian Review, 

LIBERAL RELIGIOUS SOCIETIES, AMERICAN CON- 
GRESS OF. O. C IX, 4531-4533; X, 4982; 5 139-5 140. The 
first and third articles are reports of the meetings of 1895 and 
1896, and the second one is the report of a committee ap- 
pointed to formulate definitely the scope and purpose of the 
fellowship. 

LIBERALS FOLLY, THE. O. C. Ill, 2015-2016. Republished 
in Homilies of Science. 

LIBERALS, IN ANSWER TO THE CRITICISM OF ILLIB- 
ERAL. Ill, 2107-2108. See s. V. "Destructive or Con- 
structive." 

LIBERTY AND NATIONALISM. O. C. IV, 2383-2384. Com- 
ment on T. B. Wakeman's ''Is Nationalism a Sin Against 
Liberty?" 

LIBERTY OF CONSCIENCE IN PRUSSIA. O. C. X, 4837- 
4838. An instance of persecution in Germany inconsistent with 
Germany's criticism of certain actions on the part of England. 

LIFE AND THE SOUL Mon. XVIII, 192-216. In reply to 
Mr. J. Butler Burke, who would solve the problem of the 
soul by the natural selection of atoms. The article treats in 
turn, vitalism, metabolism, animal life and consciousness, life 
a product of organization, the preservation of form, the 
spontaneity of living substance, the inner aspect or sub- 
jectivity, memory, the religious aspect. 

LIFE, ETHICS AND THE STRUGGLE FOR. O. C. IV, 2137- 
2138. Republished in Horn, of Set. 



SUMMARIES OF ARTICLES. I43 



"UKE CURES LIKE" IN GREEK LEGEND. O. C. XIV, 
509. Brief note on the origin of the philosophic principle of 
homoeopathy, illustrated by an Etruscan mirror representing 
the healing of Telephus by the application of splinters from 
the spear of Achilles which made the wound. 

LITERARY DISCUSSION, ETHICS OF. O. C. II, 1230-1231. 
Republished in Homilies of Science, 

LITTRE'S POSITIVISM. Mon. II, 410-417. Republished in 
Surd of Metaphysics, 

LIVING THE TRUTH. O. C. IV (No. 67), 2589-2590. Re- 
published in Homilies of Science. 

LOCALIZATION OF BRAIN ACTIVITY. Illustrated. O. C. 
IV, 2355-2358; 2365-2370; 2379-2383. Republished in Soul of 
Man and in the Psychology of the Nervous System, 

LOOKING FORWARD. O. C. IV, 2151-2152. Republished in 
Homilies of S-cience. 

LORD'S PRAYER, THE Illustrated. O. C. XII, 491-500. 
The Lord's Prayer, so typical of Christianity, is preserved in 
different versions in the New Testament, and it is probable 
that the tersest of them is the most original. This consisted 
of five prayers, presumably to be recited in rosary fashion, ac- 
cording to the five fingers on the hand. The several versions 
are quoted, and also the opinions of prominent theologians. 
Prototypes of the Lord's Prayer are found in ancient Hebrew 
traditions, for instance, those of Rabbi Jehudah, and the 
meaning of the word epiousios, wrongly translated "daily," is 
discussed. 

LOST MANUSCRIPT, THE. ORIGIN AND IMPORT OF 
THE NOVEL. O. C. IV, 2628-2630. Reproduced as preface 
to Freytag's Novel. 

LOVER OF TRUTH, A. O. C. VIII, 4093-4094. A lesson for 
the blunt man who insists on telling all the truth at all times 
and assumes that others are liars and hypocrites. Told in 
story form. 

LOW, CANON. Remarks on his article, "GOD IN SCIENCE 
AND RELIGION. Mon. VIII, 610^15. Republished in God. 



144 PHILOSOPHY AS A SCIENCE. 



MACH, ERNST, IN CONGRATULATION ON HIS SEVEN- 
TIETH BIRTHDAY. Mon. XVIII, 124-125. 

MACH'S PHILOSOPHY. Mon. XVI, 331-356. Comments on 
Mach*s Philosophy, as interpreted by Dr. Kleinpeter, in his 
article "On the Monism of Professor Mach." 

MACH'S TERM "SENSATION." Mon. Ill, 298-299. A few 
supplementary remarks with regard to a former controversy. 
See "Psycho-physics, Some Questions of." 

M'KINLEY, WILLIAM. OBITUARY. O. C. XV, 577-578. 

MAGIC, THE OLD AND THE NEW. Illustrated. O. C. 
XIV, 333-347; 422-436. Republished in part in Evans' The 
New and the Old Magic, 

MAGIC SQUARES, REFLECTIONS ON: MATHEMATICAL, 
HISTORICAL AND PHILOSOPHICAL. Mon. XVI, 123- 
147. Republished in Andrews's Magic Squares and Cubes, 

MAHAYANA DOCTRINE AND ART. Illustrated. O. C. 
XVI, 562-566; fei-630. Comments on Amitabha. 

MAITREYA, ANANDA. A BUDDHIST CONVERT. O. C. 
XVI, 250-251. A brief sketch of the life of Allan McGregor. 

MAITREYA, BHIKKU ANANDA. O. C. XXII, 573-574- The 
editor of Buddhism and his propaganda for the faith. 

MAN A CREATOR. With Portraits. O. C. XXI, 378-381. 
The creation of new species by Luther Burbank and Dr. 
Nilsson, of Svalof, Sweden. 

MAN AND NATURE, THE ONENESS OF. O. C. II, 1107- 
II 10. Republished in Fund, Problems, 

MARRIAGE PROBLEM AND ETHICS. O. C. 1364. A com- 
ment on Prof. Cope's suggestion of a five years' contract. 
The solution of the marriage problem can be accomplished 
only by education. For marriage to be a success, both hus- 
band and wife should be animated by the spirit of self- 
sacrifice in the idea of attending to the higher duties of a 
progressive humanity. 

MARRIAGE SERVICES REVISED. O. C. VIII, 4342. A 
rewording of the marriage service for the unchurched, so as 
to preserve, in a dignified and appropriate wav, all that^ is 
true and g^od in the traditional formulas without retaining 



SUMMARIES OF ARTICLES. 145 

expressions which imply a concession to dogmas no longer 
believed. 

MATERIALISM, THE ERROR OF. O. C V, 2823-2824. In 
answer to Col. Paul R. Shipman's criticism. Republished in 
Fundamental Problems. 

MATERIALISM, THE REACTION AGAINST. O. C IV, 
2169-21 72. Republished in Soul of Man, 

MATHEMATICAL DIVERSIONS, FRANKLIN SQUARES 
AND OTHER. Men. XVI, 605-625. See s. v. "Franklin 
Squares." 

MATHEMATICAL OCCULTISM AND ITS EXPLANATION. 
Mon. XVII, lo^iio. Editorial introduction to a symposium 
contributed to by Capt. J. F. C. Fuller, W. S. Andrews and 
William F. White. 

MATHEMATICS, A DESCRIPTION OF OPERATIONS 
WITH PURE FORMS. Mon. Ill, 133-13S. In reply to Mr. 
Edward Dixon's criticism of "The Foundations of Geometry.'* 

MATHEMATICS IN EDUCATION, THE PLACE OF. Mon. 
XV, 295-297. Comments on Professor Lindemann's efforts to 
have mathematics given a more important place in German 
secondary schools. 

MATHEMATICS, THE OLD AND THE NEW. O. C. II, 
1468-1472. Republished in Fund. Prob. 

MATHEMATICS, THE PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATIONS 
OF. Mon. XIII, 273-294. Republished in The Foundations of 
Mathematics. 

MATTER AND FORCE IN THEIR RELATION TO 
GRAVITY, SIGNIFICANCE OF. O. C. II, 803-804. Com- 
ment on Le Sage's theory of gravitation, as presented by 
Wilhelm Stoss, and on an article by J. G. Vogt. 

MAZDAISM, THE RELIGION OF THE ANCIENT PER- 
SIANS. Illustrated. O. C. XI, 141-149. Mazdaism, the 
religion of ancient Persia, was a monotheism which resembles 
greatly the doctrine of Christianity. Ahriman plays the same 
part m it as Satan in Christianity. Mithras, the Saviour, the 
son of a virgin and the all-conqueror, is called "the Vic- 
torious" and "Religiousness Incarnate." At his advent, the 



146 PHILOSOPHY AS A SCIENCE. 

dead will arise, and while the faithful will go to heaven with 
transfigured bodies, the evil-doers will be doomed to hell. 

MEDHURSrS NEW TRANSLATIONS OF THE TAO- 
TEH-KING. O. C. XX, 174-181. An extensive review con- 
taining many comparisons with Dr. Cams' own translation. 
See s. V. Lao-Tze. 

MEDICI, DR. CHARLES DE. O. C. XXII, 744-749- See j. v. 
"Tragedy of a Lonely Thinker." 

MEDIUM, REVELATIONS OF AN EX-. O. C. XXIII, iii- 
118; 280-301. Excerpts from a book now out of print which 
was written by one of the most successful mediums in the 
United States, who, after eighteen years of mediumistic ex- 
periences, gave up the profession and entered practical life. 
In doing so, he deemed it proper to unburden his conscience 
and publish a general confession of his frauds. It is from 
this book that these extracts are taken. 

MEMORY AND ORGANIZED SUBSTANCE. O. C. Ill, 
1900-1902. Republished in the Soul of Man. 

MEMORY, SENSATION AND. O. C. II, I43i-I433. See s. v, 
"Sensation." 

MEMORY, TH. RIBOT ON. O. C. I, 264-267. Presenting 
Ribot's views on memory, in which he follows his contem- 
porary, Hering. Ribot's method is to get an understanding of 
evolution by studying dissolution — its inverse process. 

MEMORY, TH. RIBOT ON DISEASES OF. O. C. I, 344- 
348. A resume of Ribot's book. 

MENE TEKEL. O. C. VIII, 3930-3932. With reference to the 

lessons to be drawn from the hard times of the winter of 

1893-94. 
MER-MONKEY, THK O. C. XX, 48-50. An actual occurrence 

relating how easily fact and fancy intertwine so as to be 

easily indistinguishable. 

MESHA'S DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE. O. C. 
XVII, 520-528. Mesha's Inscription, also called the Moabite 
stone, was a most remarkable monument which relates events 
which from the Israelitish standpoint are related in the Bibli- 
cal books of 2 Kings, iii, 4, and in other places. The article 



SUMMARIES OF ARTICLES. 147 



contains a reproduction of the stone, of the inscription in 
Hebrew characters and a translation of the text. 

MESSAGE OF MONISM TO THE WORLD. Mon. IV, 545- 
560. Monism is the principle that pervades the scientific tend- 
encies of our age, and its applications to practical life are 
important. This article sketches these applications in the three 
great fields of (i) practical psychology, touching questions of 
education, the judiciary, and the treatment of criminals; (2) 
public life, choosing for special consideration the much neg- 
lected topic of art; and (3) the religious field of our church 
institutions. 

METAPHYSICAL X IN COGNITION. Mon. V, 510-552. Re- 
published in Surd of Metaphysics. 

METAPHYSICISM. O. C. Ill, I995-I997. The main error of 
metaphysicism is the vicious habit of metaphysical philosophers 
to start with postulates, whereas positive philosophy rejects 
all postulates and starts from the positive data of experience, 
states of consciousness. Positive philosophy recognizes no rev- 
elation, no intuition, no mysticism, no agnosticism ; it deals 
with facts only, and its religion rests upon a scientific basis. 
Metaphysicism is a disease of philosophy, and a fatal one, 
for it leads straightway into the realm of the mystic unknow- 
able, where all philosophy is at an end. 

METAPHYSICISM TO POSITIVISM, FROM. O. C. I, 695- 
696. A brief reply to a criticism. 

METAPHYSICS: THE USE AND MEANING OF THE 
WORD. O. C. II, 1313-1314. Republished in Fund. Prob. 

METCHNIKOFF, ELIE, AND THE CAUSE OF SENILE 
DECADENCE. O. C. XVIII, 618-624. Extracts from a book 
by this pupil of Pasteur, who was also his successor as di- 
rector of the Pasteur Institute. Dr. Metchnikoff discovered 
the significance of the white corpuscles in the body, which 
are really scavengers of the system. He believes that in old 
age these corpuscles have devoured their natural enemies, the 
microbes, and are then obliged, for lack of food, to attack 
the higher organs. He does not claim to have found the 
solution to the problem of the evils of old age, but offers his 
hypothesis for consideration, according to which one means of 



148 PHILOSOPHY AS A SCIENCE. 

fighting against senility^ would be to strengthen the higher 
elements of the organism and to weaken the aggressive ca- 
pacities of the phagocytes. 

MEXICO, PICTORIAL DOCUMENTS OF THE SIXTEENTH 
CENTURY BY NATIVE ARTISTS OF ANCIENT. Illus- 
trated. O. C. XII, 746-755. Reproducing a series of fifteen 
pictures made at the command of a native Mexican chief. 
They were the official documents of his little state at the time 
of the conquest of Mexico by Cortez. 

MILLS, PROF. LAWRENCE H. With portrait O. C. 

XXI, 189-190. Some account of his activities at the age of 
seventy. 

MILLS, PROF. LAWRENCE H., AND THE PARSI COM- 
MUNITY. Q. C. XXIII, 446-447. Clipping from the L9ndon 
Indian Chronicle, giving an account of the honor paid to 
Professor Mills by the Parsees of London, whose guest he 
was at their annual festival. 

MILLS, PROF. LAWRENCE H., ON THE LOGOS. O. C 

XXII, 225-228. In the controversy concerning the prevalence 
of Persian ideas in Judaism and Christianity, Prof. Mills 
vigorously protests against the idea that the Logos-conception 
was derived from Persian sources. 

MIND, IS GOD A? O. C V, 2978-2980. See s. v. "God." 

MIND, NATURE OF. O. C. II, 999-1001. The derivation of 
the word and its synonyms. "Mind" denotes the intellectual 
faculty of a corporeal being, while "spirit" may be used in 
the sense of a disembodied hobgoblin. Mind can be said to 
control matter in the sense that a thinking being, by means 
of his ability to think, can control the motion of matter in 
giving direction to a certain amount of energy — but in no 
occult sense. 

MIND, NATURE OF, AND THE MEANING OF REALITY. 
Mon. II, 434-437. Suggested by Dr. Worcester's criticism of 
Prof. James's Psychology, Terms "Mind" and "Reality" are 
clearly defined. 

MIND NOT A STORAGE OF ENERGY. Mon. V, 282-288. 
In reply to Prof. Lester F. Ward. 



SUMMARIES OF ARTICLES. I49 



MIND, ORIGIN OF. Mon. I, 69-86. Republished in The Soul 

of Man, 
MIND-READING IN THE NURSERY. Illustrated. O. C. 

XIV, 502-508. Republished in Our Children. 

MINOT'S DUALISM, COMMENTS ON. Mon. XIII, 69-79. 
See s, V. "Consciousness, The Problem of." 

MISSIONARY PROBLEM, THE. O. C. X, 5124-5125. Re- 
published in Buddhism and Its Christian Critics, 

MISSIONS, CHRISTIAN. Mon. V, 274-281. See s. v "Chris- 
tian." 

MITHRAISM AND ITS INFLUENCE UPON CHRISTIAN- 
ITY. O. C. XVII, 104-106. Mazdaism is distinguished by 
its purity and high moral tone. It influenced the western 
world first in the days of Cyrus, then when the O. T. apocry- 
pha were written, then at the beginning of the Christian era, 
when it was a rival of Christianity, and again in its revival 
as manichaeism. 

MOLTKE'S RELIGION. O. C. IX, 4409-4410. In Moltke's 
Trostgedanken he accepted with pious reverence the spirit of 
the religion of his childhood, the moral kernel of which he 
recognized as pure and nowhere in conflict with reason. But 
with critical discrimination, he set aside the dogmas of Chris- 
tianity. 

MONISM A TERMINUS OF THOUGHT, IS? O. C. VI, 3178- 
3180. In reply to Mr. Ellis Thurtell's "Non-Mystical Ag- 
nosticism." 

MONISM AND HENISM. Mon. IV, 228-247. With special 
reference to Dr. R. Lewins's and Prof. Lester F. Ward's 
monistic theories. 

MONISM AND PHILOLOGY. O. C. II, 884-886. Giving ex- 
tensive quotations from Noire's Max Muller and the Philosophy 
of Language. 

MONISM AND RELIGION. O. C. I, 694-695. Monism does 
not represent a school of philosophy. Its principle is the basis 
of science. From its standpoint, religion cannot conflict with 
science. True religion, so far as it is free from superstition, 
is monistic and true ethics consists in the actualization of 
monism in our lives. 



ISO PHILOSOPHY AS A SCIENCE. 



MONISM AND SOLIPSISM. O. C. IV, 2610. Brief remarks 
on a letter from W. J. Gill in which the difference between 
monism and so-called solipsism is admitted to be merely a 
matter of terms. 

MONISM AS THE FORMAL PRINCIPLE OF COGNITION. 
O. C. II, 1478-1479. Republished in Fund. Prob. 

MONISM ARBITRARY, IS? Mon. Ill, 124-127. A reply to 
Mr. F. C. Russell's criticism of the doctrine of a double-faced 
unity of mind and matter; but they cease to be strange when 
we consider that the nature of subjectivity is feeling. Man's 
knowledge of his own objective existence is not due to any 
internal and direct perception of self, but solely to the same 
experience through which he receives information concerning 
the rest of the world. 

MONISM, DUALISM AND AGNOSTIOSM. O. C. I, 209- 
212. Monism is here first defined in The Open Court, and 
its relation to dualism and agnosticism. Monism traces being 
and thinking, object and subject, matter and force to one 
source, thus explaining all problems from one principle, but 
it also stands in opposition to either materialism or spiritualism. 

MONISM, GOETHE'S. O. C. II, 782. See s. v. "Goethe's." 

MONISM NOT MECHANICALISM. Mon. II, 438-442. Com- 
ments upon Prof. Haeckel's position. 

MONISM, ODD VIEWS OF. O. C. Ill, 1917-1918. Repub- 
lished in Fund. Prob, 

MONISM OR MATERIALISM. O. C. VI, 3i54-3i55. Conclu- 
sion of a controversy with Col. Paul R. Shipman. 

MONISM, PROFESSOR HAECKEL'S, AND THE IDEAS 
OF GOD AND IMMORTALITY. O. C. V, 2957-2958. See 
s. V. "God, etc." 

MONISM, RELIGIOUS CHARACTER OF. O. C II, 1381- 
1384. In answer to a criticism from Dr. Gustav Carus. The 
article briefly reviews the principles of monism and the points 
in which it differs from the prevalent type of freethought, and 
from materialism; and where its ethics of meliorism differs 
from the extremes of optimism and pessimism. Monism is 
not driven to the alternative of adopting either horn of the 
dilemma: the order of the universe is either the work of 



SUMMARIES OF ARTICLES. 151 

a personal God or the fortuitous result of the play of blind 
forces ; but, instead, God is the omnipresent order of the 
Cosmos, and he is immanent but not transcendent. 

monism: to the world, message of. Mon. IV, 545- 
560. See s. V. "Message." 

MONISM UNTENABLE, IS? O. C. IV, 2465-2469, 2479-2483. 
Republished in Fund, Probs. 

MONIST, THE. O. C. V, 3073-3086. A sketch of its philosophy 
and a review of the first five numbers. 

MONOGAMY AND FREE LOVE. O. C IV, 2699-2700. Re- 
published in Horn, of Set. 

MONROE DOCTRINE, SIGNIFICANCE OF THE. O. C. X, 
4780-4782. With reference to President Cleveland and the 
Venezuela question. 

MONUMENTS. Naram-Sin's Stele. 0. C. XVIII, 562-567. 
Siloam Inscription. O. C. XVII, 662-665. Fa-lek. O. C. 
XVII, 651-656, 747-754. Rosetta Stone. O. C. XVIII, 531-536; 
XIX, 89-91. Russian Icons. O. C. XVIII, 449-453- Holy Edict 
of K'ang Hi. Mon. XIV, 733-746. Caaba, The. O. C. XVII, 
151-153. Mesha's Declaration of Independence. O. C. XVII, 
520-528. Pictorial Documents of the i6th Cent, by Native Artists 
of Ancient Mexico. O. C. XII, 746-755. Queen of Sheba 
According to the Tradition of Axum. O. C. XIX, 31-34. 

MORAL OUGHT, ANALYSIS OF THE. O. C. VI, 3161-3164. 
Comments upon Prof. H. Sidgwick's View. Republished in 
Ethical Problem. 

MORALITY AND RELIGION, MR. GOLDWIN SMITH ON. 
O. C. V, 2765-2768. Republished in Ethical Problem. 

MORALITY AND VIRTUE. O. C. V, 3011-3013. Republished 
in Hom, of Sci. 

MORNING GLORY. O. C. XIX, 447. A versified rendering of 
a short Japanese poem after E. W. Clement's literal version. 

MOTE AND THE BEAM. O. C. Ill, 2099-2100; IV, 2245- 
2247. Republished in Homilies of Science, 

MUELLER, PROF. F. MAX. AND ROMANES, THE SCI- 
ENCE OF LANGUAGE VERSUS THE SCIENCE OF 



IS2 PHILOSOPHY AS A SCIENCE. 

LIFE AS REPRESENTED BY. Mon. II, 70-94. Sec s, v. 
"Evolution, Continuity of." 

MUELLER, PROF. F. MAX, DENOUNCED FOR HERESY. 
O. C. V, 2829-2832. Report of the Glasgow Presbjrtery. 

MUELLER, PROF. F. MAX. HIS THEORY OF SELF. Mon, 
VIII, 123-139. Republished in Surd of Metaphysics, 

MUHAMMAD, SAYINGS OF. O. C XX, 33-41. Comments 
on the significance of Muhammad and the religion of Islam, 
and a sketch of the prophet's life. 

MUSIC IN EDUCATION. O. C. XX, 3"-3i3. Republished in 
Our Children, 

MUSIC, POPULAR. O. C. XIV, 122-123. A brief note in 
defense of American appreciation of art. 

MUSIC, SIGNIFICANCE OF. Mon. V, 401-407. Music is the 
most perfect embodiment of purely abstract law. It is aglow 
with sentiment and is the most effective means of allaying 
the passions of the heart, and the reason is, that if we could 
analyze all the throbs of our life, we would find nothing but 
motion. Our physical life is a sonata which we perform 
without being able to hear its music 

MUSIC, SONGS SET TO: Ashvajit's Stanza. O. C. XIX, 
182-183. (Same as "Essence of the Doctrine.") Buddha's 
Hymn of Victory. O. C. XIX, 49. Eternity. O. C. XII, 245. 
The Friar. O. C. XIV, 305-312. The God of Iron. O. C. 
XII, 188. Godward. O. C. XII, 12& Karma, the Law of 
Deeds. O. C. XIX, 50. The Religion of the Future. O. C. 
XII, 571. Three Characteristics. O. C. XIX, 563. Unfurl the 
Flag. O. C. XII, 44a (1-12.) 

MUSIC. See also "Violin Music, A New System of Notation 
For." 

MYSTERIOUS BEETLR O. C VI, 3321-3323. Republished 
in Twelve Tales. 

MYSTICISM. Mon. XVIII, 75-110. Written in reply to the 
Rev. John Wright Buckham's "The Return to the Truth in 
Mysticfsm," in order to emphasize the fact that clearness of 
thought is the first requirement for the construction of a 
true philosophy, without which mysticism becomes positively 



SUMMARIES OF ARTICLES. 153 

dangerous. The return to mysticism is discussed, followed 
by its philosophical basis, and a sketch of its history. The 
significance of the German mystics is noted and the anonymous 
Theologica Germanica is quoted in detail, as are also many of 
the quatrains of the "Cherubinean Wanderer" of Angelus 
Silesius. See also "Clearness, The Importance of, and the 
Charm of Haziness." 
MYSTICISM, THE VALUE OF. O. C. Ill, 2039-2040. Re- 
published in Horn, of Scu 

MYSTIFICATIONS, UNEXPLAINED. O. C. XXII, 359-363. 
Comment on Mr. Abbott's "History of a Strange Case," in 
which it is made clear that because a spectator may not be 
able to explain the exact process by which the mystification 
is brought about, in no way invalidates the impossibility of 
ghostly interference. 

NAMES. O. C. IX, 4379-4382. A reply to Mr. John Maddock's 
letter of rejoinder with regard to definitions of "Christian," 
"Christianity," etc. There cannot be found a definition of the 
essentials of faith which could be agreed upon by the 300,- 
000,000 people who bear the name. There is no objection to 
being called a Christian, provided one may also be entitled 
to call himself a Buddhist, a Freethinker, a Kantian, or what 
not See also "Words and Their Meaning." 

NAMING THINGS IN THE NURSERY, SIGNIFICANCE 
OF. O. C. XIII, 66^^72, Republished in Our Children, 

NAPOLEON AND HENRY IV. Illustrated. O. C. XXII, 52- 
55. A contrast is drawn between Napoleon's relation to the 
pope, and that of the German kings, exemplified in Henry 
IV's humiliation at Canossa. 

NARAM-SIN'S STELE. Illustrated. O. C XVIII, 562-567. A 
remarkable Babylonian monument, erected about 3750 B. C. 
It is of great historical value, and bears witness also to the 
fact that the Babylonian religion, including their idea of the 
trinity, was shaped in all its essentials by the ancient Sume- 
rians and Akkadians. 

NATIVITY, THE. Illustrated. O. C. XIII, 710-730; Xiy, 46- 
50. The celebration of the Saviour's nativity was not limited 
to Christianity, but was observed also among non-Christians, 



154 PHILOSOPHY AS A SCIENCE. 

the Krishna worshipers, the Buddhists, the Mithraists, etc., 
and there are many strange parallels in details between pagan 
and Christian representations of the scene. The birthday of 
Christ has been settled on the day of the birth of Mithras, 
which was observed on the 25th dajr of December. Passages 
of St. Ambrose, Chrysostum, Prudentms, are quoted. The birth 
of Dionysus and of Zeus were also celebrated with great noise 
and rejoicing. 

NATURE ALIVE, IS? O. C. II, 1264-1266. Republished in 
Fund, Prob. 

NATURE AND MORALITY. O. C. VI, 3186-3189^ 3201-3203, 
3210-321 1. An examination of the ethical views of John Stuart 
Mill. Republished in Ethical Problem, 

NAVAL ACADEMY, DUPLICATE THE. O. C. XV, 495-497. 
This is a suggestion to Congress, based upon the importance 
of the naval power in the history of nations. Then, too, if 
our government gave the same education to twice as many 
youths as there are officers wanted in the navy, they would 
educate a number of efficient sailors for practical use in our 
mercantile marine and would have a reserve of trained men 
for emergencies. 

NECESSITY, THE IDEA OF; ITS BASIS AND ITS SCOPE. 
Mon. HI, 68-96. A discussion written with reference to Mr. 
'Charles S. Peirce's article on the subject of necessity. Neces- 
sity must be distinguished from the idea of fate. Bearing in 
mind that necessity is not a power outside of nature and 
above the will of man, but that it resides in ^nian as the 
quality of sameness, the view that identifies necessity with com- 
pulsion must be abandoned; recognizing thus that freedom of 
the will is not incompatible with the author's view of neces- 
sitarianism. Under "The Basis of Necessity" are treated: The 
Idea of Sameness, Sameness and Mind, The Existence of 
Sameness a Fact, eindeutig bestimmt; under "The Scope of 
Necessity: Necessity and Chance, Free- Will, The Mechanical 
Philosophy, Spontaneity. 

NERVOUS SYSTEM OF THE VERTEBRATES. Illustrated. 
O. C. IV, 2228-2232. Republished in Soul of Man; also in 
Psychohgy of the Nervous System, 



SUMMARIES OF ARTICLES. 155 

NERVOUS SYSTEM OF WORMS, RADIATES AND AR- 
TICULATES. Illustrated. O. C. IV, 2212-2216. Republished 
in Saul of Man; also in Psychology of the Nervous System. 

NESTORIUS AND THE NESTORIANS. With illustration. 
O. C. XXIII, 17 1- 1 73. Some errors occur in this article, which 
are corrected, and the article itself is expanded as republished 
in the pamphlet The Nestorian Monument, 

NEW WINE IN OLD BOTTLES. O. C. IV, 2193-2194. Re- 
published in Homilies of Science, 

NEW YEARS EVE AND NEW YEARS DAY. O. C. V, 
3071. Brief history of the day and its celebration. 

NEWSPAPER, THE IDEAL O. C. Ill, 2014, iii-iv. Remarks 
of Mr. Henry E. Rood in the North American Review, 

NEY, ELISABET. O. C. IX, 309-310. With reference to her 
famous bust of Schopenhauer. 

NEY, ELISABET. Obituary note. O. C. XXI, 637. 

NIETZSCHE,, FRIEDRICH. Illustrated. Mon. XVII, 230-251. 
A characterization of the man and his influence. 

NIETZSCHE'S PHILOSOPHY: IMMORALITY AS A 
PHILOSOPHIC PRINQPLE. Mon. IX, 572-616. See s. v. 
"Immorality." 

NIRVANA: A STORY OF BUDDHIST PSYCHOLOGY. 
O. C. X, SiSi-SiS4> 5160-5166, 5169-5173. Republished in book 
form. 

NIRVANA, ENTER INTO. O. C IV, 2635-2636. Republished 
in Honk of Science. 

NIRVANA PICTURE, WU TAO TZFS. O. C XVI, 163-166. 
Republished in album form to accompany art prints of this 
sacred Buddhist picture. See also "Chinese Art," in which 
Professor Giles is quoted as calling attention to an error in 
interpretation. 

NOBEL, DR. ALFRED BERNHARD O. C. XXIII, 448. Por- 
trait and brief note calling attention to the fact that he has 
contributed more to universal peace by his invention of ex- 
plosives than by his distribution of peace prizes. 

NORWAY AND THE PEACE PRIZE. O. C. XX, 186. Brief 
note on John Lund's article, "The Nobel Prizes." 



156 PHILOSOPHY AS A SCIENCE. 



NOT IRRELIGION, BUT TRUE RELIGION. O. C IX, 4583- 
4587. Republished in Rel. af Science, 

NUMBER TT IN CHRISTIAN PROPHECY, THE Mon. XVI, 
415-421. The oldest approximation for calculating a circle on 
the path of a cycle in ancient Babylon was three and one- 
half, or, more generally, three and a fraction, and this figure 
occurs again and again in Apocalyptic literature whenever a 
cycle of some kind in days or years is mentioned. It is strange 
that pagans have not yet discovered that this mystic number is 
the relation of the diameter to the circle; and so we have 
also the original statement that Christ would rise from the 
dead after three days, which was changed later on to "on 
the third day" because his resurrection was celebrated on 
Sunday. 

OLD AND THE NEW, THE. Mon. XIX, 468-473. In reply 
to Mr. W. E. Ayton Wilkinson's article, "Credulity and In- 
credulity," treating especially the change that has taken place 
in God-conceptions. 

OLD SYMBOLS IN A NEW SENSE O. C. XXI, 573-574. 
Brief note in comment on an article on the swastika by Dr. 
Parker, who sees, in its pre-Christian origin, a prophecy of the 
Church. 

OLD TESTAMENT SCRIPTURES. O. C. XV, 156-175. His- 
tory of the Jews in relation to the history of their canon, as 
it appears in the light of scientific enquiry. 

OLYMPIAN BRIDES. Illustrated. O. C. XXII, 79-100. Re- 

published in The Bride of Christ. 

ONEIROS AND HARPAX. O. C. VIII, 4100-4101. A legend 
of the creation in which Oneiros is an angel who brings fair 
visions to man in Eden, but Harpax comes at the moment 
of awakening and takes them away. Finally the man and 
woman left Eden and tilled the ground for their bread. Their 
sorrows were multiplied, but they were undaunted, and they 
were satisfied that this world of work, struggle and death, in 
spite of so many dangers, miseries and disappointments, was 
better than the Eden of unconscious happiness. 

ONTOLOGY AND POSITIVISM. O. C. IV, 2143-2145. Re- 
published in Fund, Problems. 



SUMMARIES OF ARTICLES. I57 



ORNAMENT, EVOLUTION OF. Illustrated. O. C XVII, 291- 
296. See s. V, "Evolution," etc. 

ORPHEUS MOSAIC, THE. Illustrated. O. C. XV, 566-568. 
This is a mosaic recently discovered in Jerusalem, probably 
pagan, thus corroborating the theory that the early Christians 
availed themselves of pagan symbols before they developed a 
symbolism of their own. 

OSTWALD'S PAMPHLET ON UNIVERSAL LANGUAGE. 
Mon. XIV, 591-596. Prof. Ostwald's objections to English are 
negative and based mainly on national prejudice. The author 
concludes by calling attention to the fact that the aspiration 
of constructing a world language is in itself a factor that 
should not be underrated as a symptom of the growing spirit 
of international friendship. 

OSTWALD'S PHILOSOPHY, PROFESSOR. Mon. XVII, 516- 
54a An appreciation and a criticism of his theory of energetics. 

OUGHT AND THE IS, THK O. C. VI, 3i9S-3i97. See s, v, 
"Is," etc. 

OUGHT AND THE MUST, THE. O. C IV, 2584-2586. Repub- 
lished in Ethical Problem, 

PAGAN CHRISTS. O. C. XIX, 92-99. An extended review of 
John M. Robertson's book of this name. 

PAGAN ELEMENTS OF CHRISTIANITY; AND THE SIG- 
NIFICANCE OF JESUS. Monist XII, 416-425. The idea of 
a saviour existed before Jesus, and the word Christ appears in 
the Septuagint and the Psalms of Solomon, both pre-Christian. 
Christianity teaches that Jesus was the Christ. The pre-Chris- 
tian Christ conceptions are more mythological. One of them 
is still preserved in Revelations XII and XIX. The prototype 
of the latter is apparently Marduk, and so there seems to have 
existed also a worship of Serapis as Christ, which is indicated 
in a letter of Emperor Hadrian. The Jews ignored the doc- 
trine of immortality, but Christianity reintroduced it, together 
with the Trinity doctrine and the ceremonial wailing day for 
the god that had died. In a struggle between the several forms 
of Christianity, it is by no accident that the one best suited 
survived. 



158 PHILOSOPHY AS A SCIENCE. 



PAGAN NUN, A. O. C. XXI, 319. A Homeric hymn which 
preserves the prayer of a vestal virgin. Republished with illus- 
tration in The Bride of Christ. 

PAIN AND PLEASURE, NATURE OF. Mon. VI, 432. The 
traditional idea that pleasure is growth, and pain, destruction 
is opposed. Growth is frequently attended by pain, and pain 
is always caused by disturbance. 

FA-LEK. Illustrated. O. C. XVII, 651-656; 747-754. Philae 
is the Hellenized form of P'a-lek, "The Island of the 
End." An account of the history of the island up to the time 
it was submerged in 1903 in the floods of the Nile. 

PANLOGISM. Monist VII, 82-89. Republished in Surd of 
Metaphysics. 

PANPSYCHISM AND PANBIOTISM. Monist III, 234-257. 
Republished in Surd of Metaphysics, 

PARABLE OF THE TALENTS. O. C. XIX, 129-130. A 
Buddhist parallel to the Gospel story. 

PARENTHOOD. O. C. XIII, 211-214. Republished in Our 
Children. 

PASIGRAPHY: A SUGGESTION. Mon. XIV, 565-582. A 
writing to be read by all nationalities would not be subject to 
the same difficulties as an international language, among which 
the various peculiarities of pronunciation are not the least. 

PATRIOTISM AND CHAUVINISM. O. C. VIII, 5012. Re- 
published in Tolstoy's Christianity and Patriotism. 

PEACE ON EARTH; A PROBLEM OF PRACTICAL DI- 
PLOMACY. A Suggestion to the Members of the Peace 
Commission. O. C. XIII, 360-363. The plan of disarmament 
so often proposed as a means to bring about peace, is 
repudiated as unfeasible, and a proposition is made not to give 
power to the members of the tribunal, which would simply 
defeat their purpose, but to make of it a kind of international 
conscience. As such the tribunal would grow in importance 
and no world power could afford to treat its opinions with 
indifference. 

PEACEMAKERS, SOME FALLACIES OF THE. O. C. XXIII, 
321-339. This article gives a report of the second annual meet- 



SUMMARIES OF ARTICLES. iS9 



ing of the National Peace Congress at Chicago in May, 1909. 
The author thinks that the peace-at-any-price agitation is not 
only incapable of accomplishing international harmony, but is 
positively dangerous in its tendency to discourage the proper 
equipment for self-protection. Every country must be able to 
protect itself or its rights will not be respected. 

PEACEMAKERS IN TROUBLE. O. C. XXIII, 445-446. That 
even advocates of peace cannot avoid conflicts is illustrated 
by an incident that occurred to a prominent one of their num- 
ber. The author takes occasion to reply to some objections 
made against his "Some Fallacies of the Peacemakers." 

PEARSON ON THE BIBLE, PROFESSOR. O. C. XVI, 152. 
See s. V. "Bible." 

PECHVOGEL, JOHN. O. C. VIII, 4193-4196. The story of a 
blunderer who died a hero. 

PEIRCE, CHARLES S., THE FOUNDER OF TYCHISM; 
HIS METHODS, PHILOSOPHY, AND CRITICISMS. Mon. 
Ill, 571-622. This long discussion of Mr. Peirce's philosophy 
of chance is divided into the following heads: Attention to 
Detail, Originality, A Modem Procrustes, Occam's Razor, 
The Application of Learning, The Principle of Positivism, Lop- 
ping Off the Absolute, The Theory of Probable Inference, 
Zweideutig hestimmt, Explanation, Duns Scotus as a Philosoph- 
ical Patron Saint, Mr. Peirce's Original Theories, The Four 
Positive Arguments of Tychism Insufficient, The Negative 
Argument a Logical Fallacy. The Apriori and Positivism, 
Determinism and Fatalism, Natural I^ws, Causation, Stray 
Shots. 

PEIRCE, CHARLES S., ON NECESSITY. Mon. II, 442. 
Brief note announcing editorial article on necessity to follow 
Mr. Peirce's. See s. v. "Necessity, The Idea of." 

PEOPLE BY THE SEA. O. C. VI, 3275-3276. Republished in 
Twelve Tales. 

PERSIAN DUALISM. O. C. IX, 4683-4685. Republished in 
Hist, of the Devil. 

PERSONALITY OF GOD. Monist IX, 300-305. Reply to Mr. 
W. E. Ayton Wilkinson. Republished in God. 



i6o PHILOSOPHY AS A SCIENCE. 



PERSONS, NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL O. C. II, 1339- 
1340. Trusts and corporations are artificial individualities as 
compared to nations and empires which are natural individuals. 

PETRARCH. Illustrated. O. C. XVIII, 385-393. Life and 
characterization in honor of his six hundredth anniversary. 

PFLEIDERER, DR. OTTO. Brief obituary notice. O. C XXII, 
505. 

PHENOMENA AND NOUMENA. O. C III, 1526-1529. Re- 
published in Fund. Proh, 

PHENOMENAL AND THE NOUMENAL, ONENESS OF 
THK O. C. Ill, 1541-1542. Republished in Fund, Probs. 

PHILIPPINE IMBROGLIO. O. C. XIII, 504-505. See also 
s, V. "Expansion but not Imperialism." 

PHILIPPINES, CHINA AND THK O. C. XIV, 108-iia See 
s, V. "China." 

PHILIPPINES, HOW TO GOVERN THE. O. C XXI, 629- 
634. A suggestion in reply to Poultney Bigelow's "Japanese 
Panmalaya." See also s. v, "Expansion but not Imperialism." 

PHILOLOGISTS' VIEWS ON ARTIFICIAL LANGUAGES. 
Monist XVII, 610-618. Criticism of the impracticability of an 
artificial language, including quotations from Dr. Karl Brug- 
mann. Professor of Indo-Germanic languages at Leipsic, and 
August Leskien, Professor of Slavic tongues in the same insti- 
tution. 

PHILOSOPHICAL NOMENCLATURE, DIFFICULTIES IN. 
Monist XV, 6zz-^Z^* Comments on Mr. J. B. Peterson's sug- 
gestion contained in "Some Philosophical Terms," with special 
mention of "positive" and Anschauung. 

PHILOSOPHICAL PARTIES AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE 
AS FACTORS IN THE EVOLUTION OF THOUGHT. O. C. 
XI, 5647571- There is a natural contrast in philosophy between 
rationalism and empiricism. These parties are as natural as 
the political divisions of Whigs and Tories, Republicans and 
Democrats, etc. There are always likely to be irregulars cor- 
responding to populists, and it is often equally natural for an 
independent or eclectic party to arise which demands the set- 
tlement of practical questions. Corresponding parties appear . 



SUMMARIES OF ARTICLES. i6i 

in religion. Pharisees and Sadducees supplied the two ex- 
tremes and the Essenes and Nazarenes were the irregulars of 
the time. The reason of the constant reappearance of contrasts 
is that both are legitimate and, though contrasts, they do not 
contradict each other. A definite solution of the issues between 
realism and nominalism, between Kant's apriorism and Mill's 
empiricism is provided in the philosophy of form. 

PHILOSOPHY IN JAPAN. Monist IX, 273-281. A synopsis 
of a paper given by Professor Inouye of the University of 
Tokio before the International Congress of Orientalists at 
Paris. 

PHILOSOPHY OF A HUMORIST. O. C VIII, 4266-4269; 
4203-4204; 4298-4300. Republished in book form as Edward's 
Dream, 

PHILOSOPHY OF THE PERSONAL EQUATION, THE. 
Mon. XIX, 78-84. A further criticism of Professor James's 
Pragmatism, in which special attention is given to the great 
significance ascribed in that work to temperament. See s. v. 
"Pragmatism." 

PHILOSOPHY, OUR NEED OF. O. C VII, 3783-3786. Re- 
published as a pamphlet 

PHILOSOPHY, THE ASSOCIATION. O. C. VII, 3611-3612. 
See s. V. "Association." 

PHONOGRAPH, THE MECHANICAL MEMORY OF A. 
O. C. II, 1032-1033. The analogy of memory with a phono- 
graph, and of the soul with a composite photograph, quoting 
largely from Mr. E. C. Hegeler and Mr. I. G. Vogt. 

PITHECANTHROPUS. O. C. IX, 4404. Republished in Rise 
of Man. 

PLATO AND THE CROSS. Illustrated. O. C. XHI, 364-372. 
Collected with other related articles. See s. v. "Cross." 

PLEASURE AND PAIN. O. C. HI, 1987-1989. Republished in 
S(>ul of Man. 

POLITICS, PRESENT ISSUE IN OUR. O. C. X, 5047-5048. 
Significance of the McKinley-Bryan campaign. 

POLYCHROME BIBLE THE. O. C. V, 2877-2880. An ex- 
tended review and explanation of the work, with one illustra- 
tion. 



i62 PHILOSOPHY AS A SCIENCE. 



POPE'S ENCYCLICAL, THE. O. C V, 2877-2880. Comment- 
ing upon the encyclical of Leo XIII in 1891 on **The Condi- 
tion of Labor," this article acknowledges that it is a document 
of remarkable wisdom, apparently dictated by paternal solicitude 
and a love of truth and justice, but differs on the subject of 
Christian charity and declares that the encyclical gives no 
encouragement to progressive ideas. 

POSITIVE SCIENCE VERSUS GNOSTICISM AND AGNOS- 
TICISM. O. C. IV, 2120-2122; 2145-2147; 2189-2190. In an- 
swer to the criticism of Paul R. Shipman and republished in 
Fund Proh, 

POSITIVISM, LITTRFS. Mon. II, 410-417. See s. v. "Lit- 

tre's." 

POSTAL SERVICE,. OUR. O. C. XVIII, 343-347. Relating 
how the express companies interfere with the delivery of par- 
cels sent by mail, and also how good literature is discriminated 
against in the second-class mail department while many trivial 
periodicals are encouraged. 

POSTOFFICE, SUPREME COURT AND THE. O. C. XVIII, 
348-350. See s, V, "Supreme Court." 

POTENTIAL THINGS, ON. Mon. X, 288-293. Editorial reply 
to Daniel Bright. 

POWELL, MAJOR, THE CHIEF. O. C. XVI, 639-640, 716. 
The first is an obituary notice with portrait, the second a brief 
eulogy with special reference to the honorary doctor's degree 
received from Heidelberg University. 

PRAGMATISM. Monist XVIII, 321-362. This critique of the 
prevalent popular philosophy as set forth by Professor James 
is reprinted in pamphlet form, and discusses the pragmatist*s 
conception of truth, the useful lie, truth compared to cash 
value, the objective significance of truth, oneness and reason, 
the mind and the universe, time and space, love of facts and 
mysticism, misunderstood, the personal equation, the plasticity 
of truth, Ptolemy and Copernicus, Euclid and Aristotle, ma- 
terialism and spiritualism, religious problems, tychism, the en- 
emies of pragmatism, the philosophy of tolerance. 



SUMMARIES OF ARTICLES. 163 



PRAGMATISM, A GERMAN CRITIC OF. Monist XIX, 13^ 
148. Extensive quotations in translation of a criticism of prag- 
matism by Ludwig Stein of Berne. 

PRAGMATISM, A POSTSCRIPT ON. Monist XIX, 85-94. 
In comment on Professor James's review of Marcel Hebert's 
book which treats of "Pragmatism and Its Various Anglo- 
American Forms." 

PRAGMATISM: PHILOSOPHY OF THE PERSONAL 
EQUATION. MONIST XIX, 78-84. See s, v. "Philosophy.** 

PRAJNAPARAMITA. O. C. XVI, 367-368. The history of 
a statue in the Royal Museum of Leyden representing "the 
Perfection of Wisdom." It is a specimen of ancient Buddhistic 
art in Java and a reproduction is given in the frontispiece of 
the number. 

PRE-EXISTENCE AND IMMORTALITY. O. C VIII, 431S- 
4317. A study of the nature of the soul in answer to Mr. 
Louis Prang's objections. 

PRESBYTERIAN, IN REPLY TO A. O. C. X, 5016-5021. 
Replying to a criticism of Religion of Science, and republished 
in the 3d ed. of that book. 

PRIMITIVE MAN. Illustrated. 0. C. XX, 65-80. Republished 
in Rise of Man, 

PRO DOMO. O. C. XIX, 577-587. In comment on a criticism 
of the author's position, in "The Expository Times." It is 
maintained that a scientific conception of Christianity is the 
necessary and historical product of religious evolution, and that 
those who have not yet reached this goal are bound to come 
to the same conclusion sooner or later. 

PROGRESS. RELIGION OF. O. C. V, 2964-2965. Republished 
in Homilies of Science. 

PROGRESS, TEST OF. O. C. V, 2915-2917. See s. v, "Test." 

PROMETHEUS AND THE FATE OF ZEUS. O. C. V, 2970- 
2971. Republished in Homilies of Science. 

PROTO-SEMITISM, THE RELIGION OF. O. C. XVIII, 421- 
429. An account of Prof. Samuel Ives Curtiss* Primitive 
Semitic Religion To-Day, and its enlarged German edition. 



i64 PHILOSOPHY AS A SCIENCE. 

PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEM AND RELIGION, THE. O. C 

IV, 2341-2343. Republished in Soul of Man, 

PSYCHOLOGICAL TERMS. O. C. VII, 3712-3714- Repub- 
lished in Prim, of Phil, 

PSYCHOLOGY A DOMAIN OF ITS OWN. Mon. XIX, 387- 
398. With special reference to Prof. Robertson's biochem- 
ical interpretation of mental i)henomena; discusses the impor- 
tance of psychology, the doctrine of parallelism, the nature of 
memory as the preservation of living forms and as a soul- 
builder. 

PSYCHOLOGY, A STUDY IN ABNORMAL Monist XIX, 
148-155. A review with extensive quotations from Dr. Mor- 
ton Prince's The Dissociation of a Personality. 

PSYCHOLOGY, THE OLD AND THE NEW. O. C. FV, 2412- 

2413. Republished in Soul of Man. 

PSYCHO-PHYSICS, SOME QUESTIONS OF. Mon. I, 401- 
420; III, 298-299. A discussion of "Feelings and the Elements 
of Feelings," republished in Fund. Prob. 

QUALITY, SIGNIFICANCE OF. Monist XV, 375-385. Writ- 
ten in reply to "Quality and Quantity," by M. Johannes Gros. 
There is no quality in itself, nor is there any occult meaning 
to the idea of quality. It is simply a question of form, and as 
such its significance cannot be overrated. 

QUEEN OF SHEBA ACCORDING TO THE TRADITION 
OF AXUM. O. C. XIX, 31-34. Review of an Abyssinian 
account of the Queen of Sheba and her visit to King Solomon. 

RAILROAD ETHICS OF MR. H. D. JUDSON. O. C. X, 5025- 
5030. See s. V. "Judson." 

RAILROAD STRIKE, TRAVELING DURING A. O. C. VIII. 

4140-4142. See s. V. "Traveling." 

RAINBOWS AND BRIDGES. O. C IX, 4388-4389. Comments 
on idealism. 

RATIONALISM IN THE NURSERY. O. C. XIII, 98-iog. 
Republished in Our Children. 

RATZEUS HISTORY OF MANKIND. O. C. XII, ii8-iaa 
An extensive review with illustration. 



SUMMARIES OF ARTICLES. 165 



REAL AND REALITY. O. C IV, 2316. A brief reply to a 
criticism in Freethimght 

REALITY, THE NATURE OF MIND AND THE MEANING 
OF. Mon. II, 434-437. See s. v, "Mind." 

REASON. O. C VII, 3688-3692. Republished in Primer of 
Phil. 

REASON WHY ABBE CHARBONNEL FAILED. O. C. XII, 
300-305. He was a zealous advocate of a Religious Parliament 
to be held at the Paris exposition in 1900. 

REFLEX-MOTIONS, THREE PHASES OF. O. C. Ill, 2084- 
2086. Republished in Soul of Mark 

RELIGION A FEELING OF DEPENDENCE? IS. O. C. XIII, 
363-365. A comment on Schleiermacher's definition of religion 
with reference to Sasha Schneider's picture of this conception. 

RELIGION AND IMMORTALITY. O. C. Ill, 2087. Repub- 
lished in Horn, of Science, 

RELIGION AND MORALS. O. C. II, 981-982. In answer to 
Prof. Von Gizycki*s statement that theology and metaphysics 
have nothing to do with morality. 

RELIGION AND SCIENCE. O. C. I, 405-407; II, 1217. The 
first article gives an exposition of the significance of the re- 
ligion of science, claiming that the only true religion in its 
application to real life is ethics. The second is a resume of 
the Theophilus discussion in the second volume and consists 
of definitions of the terms — ^truth, science, knowledge, religion, 
morals, and ethics. 

RELIGION AND SCIENCE, CONCILIATION OF. O. C. VI, 
3285-3286. See s, V. "Conciliation." 

RELIGION AND SCIENCE, SUPERSTITION IN. 0. C. II, 
837-839. In answer to D. Theophilus. 

RELIGION BASED UPON FACTS. O. C. Ill, 2104-2106. Re- 
published in Homilies of Science, 

RELIGION, DEFINITION OF. Mon. XIV, 766-770. In brief, 
religion covers man's relation to the entirety of existence. The 
characteristic feature of religion is conviction, and its content 
a world-conception which serves for the regulation of conduct. 



i66 PHILOSOPHY AS A SCIENCE. 



RELIGION IN FAIRY TALES. O. C. XIII, 184-185. Repub- 
lished in Eros and Psyche. 

RELIGION INSEPARABLE FROM SCIENCE. O. C VII. 
3560. We cannot dispense with a rational inquiry into truth in 
our religion. 

RELIGION OF ENLIGHTENMENT. O. C. XVII, 567-S68. 
Republished in The Dharma, 

RELIGION OF OUR ANCESTORS. Illustrated. O. C. XI, 
177-285. Survivals in Christianity of the paganism of northern 
Europe. 

RELIGION OF PROGRESS, THE. O. C. V, 2964-2965. See 
s. V, "Progress." 

RELIGION OF RESIGNATION. O. C. Ill, 2051-2052. Repub- 
lished in Horn, of Science, 

RELIGION OF SCIENCE. O. C. VII. 3511-3S12; 3634-3647; 
3640-3644; 3649-3652; 3658-3660; 3668-3669; 3672-3674. Re- 
published in book form, except the first article, which sums up 
the position of the Open Court on science, religion, truth, etc., 
the occasion being the change in the headline of the magazine 
to "Devoted to the Religion of Science." 

RELIGION OF SCIENCE. Mon. II, 600-606. Quotations from 
and comments on Professor JodFs article discussing the philo- 
sophical principles in the conflict in Germany between the 
advocates of the incorporation of religious instruction in the 
public schools, and the progressive educators. 

RELIGION OF SCIENCE, CATHOLICITY OF THE. O. C. 
V, 4793. In comment upon Canon Low's exposition of the 
Trinity. 

RELIGION OF SCIENCE, PROFESSOR ADOLF HARNACK 
ON. Monist IV, 494-506. See s. v. "Harnack." 

RELIGION OF SCIENCE, WITCHCRAFT AND THE. 0. C. 
X, 4923-4926. Republished in Hist, of the Devil. 

RELIGION, PROF. L. BUECHNER ON. O. C. II, 965-967. See 
s. V. "Biichner." 

RELIGION OF THE FUTURE. O. C. XII, 571. Hymn set to 
music. Republished in Sacred Tunes. 



SUMMARIES OF ARTICLES. 167 

RELIGION, PROGRESS OF. O. C V, 2834. A comment on 
the Briggs controversy written before the heresy trial. 

RELIGION, PROSPECTS OR O. C IX, 4708-4709. The 
future of mankind will not be an age of irreligion, but the 
religion of the future will be based on science. 

RELIGION, STATE CONFERENCES OF. O. C XIII, 313. 
Brief note on the conference instituted by the churches of the 
state of New York after the pattern of the Religious Parlia- 
ment of 1893. 

RELIGION, THE LOVE OF TRUTH AND THE APPLICA- 
TION OF TRUTH. O. C VI, 3480-3484. After-dinner 
speeches on problems of agnosticism delivered in London in 
answer to agnostic friends, mainly W. Stewart Ross (Saladin) 
and F. J. Gould. 

RELIGION, UNIVERSAL AND SPECIAL. O. C X, 5012- 
5013. Comments on Rev. Alfred Martin's "universal religion." 
The position is taken that his work would be more efficient if 
he ceased to denounce denominations which are working on 
parallel lines simply because they do not sink their individuality 
mto the pure abstraction of universal religion. 

RELIGIONS OF CHINA. O. C. XVII, 622-624. See s, v. 
"China." 

RELIGIOUS PARLIAMENT, EUROPEAN OPINIONS ON 
THE SECOND. O. C. X, 4807-4810. A collection of letters 
on the proposed Paris religious parliament in 1900. 

RELIGIOUS PARLIAMENT EXTENSION. O. C. IX, 4355- 
4356. Report of the New Year's Reunion, 1895. 

REUGIOUS PARLIAMENT EXTENSION, THE WORLD'S. 
Mon. V, 345-353. A few words of encouragement for the 
movement inaugurated at the New Year's meeting, 1895, in- 
cluding messages of greeting from prominent participators of 
the first Parliament. 

RELIGIOUS PROBLEM, THE. O. C. IV, 2263-2264. Repub- 
lished in Horn, of Science, 

RELIGIOUS TRUTH POSSIBLE? IS. 0. C. VII, 3883-3884. 
In answer to Mrs. Alice Bodington, an agnostic. The nature 
of our religious ideal is as much predetermined as man's rea- 



i68 PHILOSOPHY AS A SCIENCE. 



son and the multiplication table; for religious truth is ulti- 
mately founded in the immutable and eternal constitution of the 
universe. 

RENDER NOT EVIL FOR EVIL O. C. IV, 2123-2125. Re- 
published in Horn, of Science, 

REPRESENTATION WITHOUT TAXATION. O. C. .XVI, 
183. Brief editorial note on the irresponsible voter who is not 
a property-holder. 

RESURGAM. O. C. X, 4906-4908. In answer to Mr. George M". 
McCrie. The soul is form; man consists not of the material 
particles of his body, but the strength of our days is labor and 
sorrow; and if our labor is not in vain, it shall continue to be 
effective after death. 

RESURRECTION A HYPERHISTORICAL FACT. O. C. 
XIX, 690-696. Explains what higher criticism has to say on 
the subject. (Quotations from Holtzmann.) Theology no 
longer insists as strongly as formerly on the bodily resurrec- 
tion, but looks upon it more as the symbol of the truth of 
immortality. 

RESURRECTION AND IMMORTALITY, THE. ^ O. C. XXI, 
198-201. A critical summary of the resurrection accounts. 
With the change of our views concerning immortalit3r from 
a belief in the revival of the body to a belief in the immor- 
tality of the soul, we have grown more accustomed to consider 
the account of Christ's resurrection as a legend in which the 
current notion of life after death among the early Christians 
found its typical embodiment. 

RESURRECTION, CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE OF THK Mon- 
ist XV, 115-119. In comment on the view of James Riggs, 
D. D., pointing out divergent views of the risen Christ as 
stated by St. Paul. Present theological authorities by no means 
agree as to the character of the resurrection, and of the nature 
of the risen Christ. 

RESURRECTION, THE DOCTRINE OF THE. AND ITS 
SIGNIFICANCE IN THE NEW CHRISTIANITY. O. C. 
IX, 4738. A comment on the views of the Rev. George J. 
Low, and the Reverend Haweis, who wish the doctrine reinter- 
preted. 



SUMMARIES OF ARTICLES. 169 

RESURRECTION, THE FESTIVAL OF. O. C IV, 2i79-2i8a 
Republished in Horn, of Science, 

RETROSPECT AND PROSPECT. O. C. XXI, i-io. An ex- 
position of the aims, methods and spirit of the work of The 
Open Court after twenty years of existence. The following 
heads are discussed: The Work of The Open Court, Science 
the Reformer, Evolution, Fulfillment not Destruction, The Root 
of Religion, God, The Duty of Inquiry, The Divinity of 
Science, The Old Terms in a New Sense, The God of Truth, 
No Substitute, Difference and Unity in Religion, The Future. 

REVELATION. O. C. IV, 2277-2278. Republished in Homilies 
of Science, 

REVOLUTION? DO WE WANT A. O. C. (No. 166) IV, 
2590-2591. Republished in Homilies of Science. 

REVOLUTION, THE MODERN STATE BASED UPON. 
O. C. VIII, 3970-3971. Republished in Nature of the State, 

REVOLUTION, THE RIGHT TO. O. C VIII, 3961-3963. Re- 
published in Nature of the State. 

RIBOT ON DISEASES OF MEMORY. 0. C I, 344-348. A 
resume of Ribot's Diseases of Memory. 

RIBOT ON MEMORY. O. C. I, 264-267. See s. v. "Memory." 

RIBOT ON WILL. 0. C. I, 455-458; 487-490. A resume of 
Ribot's Diseases of the WUl 

RIBOT'S PSYCHOLOGY. O. C. VII, 3661-3662. Notes in 
comment on Mr. Edward Sokal's article. 

RIDDLE OF THE UNIVERSE, THE KEY TO THE. Mon. 
V, 408-411. A disquisition on Mr. Edward Douglas Fawcett's 
philosophy. The key lies in a correct comprehension of the 
nature of form. 

ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH AND THE JESUITS. O. C. 
XVI, 40-43* Comments on an article by M. Ladaveze dis- 
cussing those characteristics of the Jesuits which distinguish 
them from other Monastic orders. Although they seem to be 
extremists in orthodox doctrine, there is frequently hostility 
between the Jesuits and the Church and they were expelled 
from France a few years ago. It is also true that the Jesuit 



I70 PHILOSOPHY AS A SCIENCE. 

order bears remarkable similarities to the Mussulman secret 
societies. 

ROMAN CHURCH, AMERICANISM IN THE. O. C XIII, 
253-255. See s, V. "Americanism." 

ROMANES, PROF. GEORGE JOHN. Obituary notice with 
portrait. O. C. VIII, 4111-4112. 

ROMANES, GEORGE JOHN: IN MEMORIAM. (With por- 
trait.) Monist IV, 482. 

ROMANES, G. J., AND MAX MUELLER, SCIENCE OF LAN- 
GUAGE VERSUS THE SCIENCE OF UFE AS REPRE- 
SENTED BY. Mon. II, 70-94. See s. v, "Evolution, Con- 
tinuity of." 

ROMANES' THOUGHTS ON RELIGION. Mon. V, 385-4001 
Republished in Dawn of a New Era. 

ROME AND SCIENCE. O. C IX, 4365-4366. Comments on 
a speech by Archbishop Ireland. 

ROSETTA STONE, THE. Illustrated. O. C. XVIII, S31-536. 
The Rosetta stone, written in three languages, is the key by 
the help of which the Egyptian alphabet was deciphered. The 
three parts of the stone are here reproduced, and the names 
Cleopatra and Ptolemy, which were used by Champollion, iden- 
tified with hieroglyphs. 

ROSETTA STONE, THE HISTORY AND SIGNIFICANCE 
OF. O. C. XIX, 89-91. This article complements the preced- 
ing by recapitulating the history of the rosetta stone, on the 
authority of Professor E. A. Wallis Budge. 

ROSMINrS PHILOSOPHY. O. C. VII, 3685-3688. Repub- 
lished in Ethical Problem, 

RUSSIAN ICONS. Illustrated. 0. C XVIII, 449-453. The 
Reformation did not reach Russia, and so the reverence shown 
to icons (images or pictures) is still one of the characteristic 
features of the Russian Orthodox Church. 

SALUTATORY. O. C. XI, 1-15. This article explains the prin- 
ciples of the Open Court; the significance of science for re- 
ligion; and the helplessness of agnosticism, the philosophy of 
nescience. Several superstitions of modem liberalism are re- 



SUMMARIES OF ARTICLES. 171 

pudiated. No awe should be attached to Energy (spelled with 
a capital "E"), First Cause, the Infinite, etc. Most of the 
unknowables of agnosticism are due to a mere confusion of 
thought. Not what is unknown to us is of religious signifi- 
cance, but everything that authoritatively determines human 
conduct 

SAMARITANS, THE. O. C. XXII, 488-491. Review of Dr. 
James Alan Montgomery's book. 

SAMPIETRO'S MOTHER. O. C. XIX, 7S^7S^' A folk-tale 
parallel to the story of the spider-web in Karma. 

SAMSON STORY, MYTHICAL ELEMENTS IN. Illustrated. 
Monist XVII, 33-83. Republished in The Story of Samson. 

SANTA CLAUS. O. C XIII, 4S-50. Republished in Our ChiU 
dren, 

SCHEFFLER, JOHANNES. See "Angelus Silesius." 

SCHILLER, FRIEDRICH. Illustrated. O. C. XIX, 260-318. 
Republished in Friedrich Schiller. 

SCHILLER AS A PROPHET. O. C. XI, 214-220. Republished 
in Friedrich Schiller. 

SCHILLER THE DRAMATIST. Illustrated. O. C. 330-344; 
407-419. Republished in Friedrich Schiller. 

SCHOLAROMANIA. O. C. IX, 4335-4337. In reply to Pro- 
fessor J. Estlin Carpenter's critique of the author's Gospel of 
Buddha. 

SCHOOL, ANTICIPATE THE. O. C. XIII, 747-757. Repub- 
lished in Our Children. 

SCHOPENHAUER, THE PROPHET OF PESSIMISM. O.C. 
XI, 257-264. With autograph of the great pessimist, reproduc- 
tion of bust by Elisabet Ney, and four photographs, together 
with extracts from Schopenhauer, and an appreciative criticism 
of his philosophy. 

SCIENCE. O. C. VII, 3520-3521. Republished in Prim, of Phil 

SCIENCE A RELIGIOUS REVELATION. O. C. VII, 3809- 
3814; 4253-4254. Republished in pamphlet form. 

SCIENCE AND ETHICS. O. C. IV, 2590-2592. Republished 
in The Ethical Problem. 



172 PHILOSOPHY AS A SCIENCE. 

SCIENCE AND IMMORTAUTY. O. C V, 3022-3026. See 
s. V, "Immortality." 

SCIENCE AND RELIGION. O. C. IV, 2678. Comments on 
Dr. Robert Lewins' article on the incongruity of science and 
religion. 

SCIENCE. GOD OF. Mon. XIV, 458-469. See s, v. "God, etc." 

SEAL OF CHRIST, THE. Illustrated. O. C. XIV, 229-245. 
The oldest symbol of Christianity is not the cross, but the seal 
of Christ, mentioned in the epistles of Paul, which are the 
earliest writings of the New Testament. It is difficult to prove 
definitely what it was, but very probably it was the simple 
equilateral cross formed of two equal intersecting lines, instead 
of the Roman cross of the crucifixion, by which later it was 
naturally replaced. The article also contains considerable mis- 
cellaneous material of great interest following the articles on 
the Cross as an aftermath. Illustrations of many interesting 
crosses from widely different sources are here collected and 
explained. 

SECULARISM, MR. G. J. HOLYOAKES. 0. C. X, 5092-5094. 
See s. V. "Holyoake." 

"SELF," MEANING OF. O. C VIII, 4240-4243. In answer to 
Mr. George M. McCrie's article, "The Barriers of Personality." 

SELF, PROF. F. MAX MUELLER'S THEORY OF THE. Mon. 
VIII, 123-139. See s. V. "Miiller." 

SELF-RESIGNATION, ADVANTAGES OF. O. C. X, 5115- 
5 1 18. Both Christian and Buddhist ethics teach self-abnega- 
tion, and the religion of science joins them in the spirit of 
their teachings. He who is anxious to preserve his self in its 
separateness will surely fail, for his present individuality will 
be dissolved in death; but he whose aim is to be an incarna- 
tion of truth is sure to succeed. He has attained immortality. 
Napoleon, Omar Khayyam, Goethe, Newton, are used as in- 
stances of different attitudes. 

SENSATION AND MEMORY. O. C. II, I43I-I433. Repub- 
lished in Fund. Prob, 

SENSES, THE LIMITATIONS OF OUR. O. C IV, 2119 2120. 
The fallacy of the agnostic's position is pointed out; for. 



SUMMARIES OF ARTICLES. 173 



though sensations are the basis of all knowledge, man's knowl- 
edge is not limited to his own direct sensations. 

SEVEN, THE SACRED NUMBER. Illustrated. O. C. XV, 
335-340; 412-427. A compilation of the part which the number 
seven played in Babylon, and among other nations. There are 
the seven sages, the seven stories of the Ziggurat, the seven 
planets, and the seven week days, the seven stars of the Pleia- 
des. Among the Buddhists there are the seven gems, the seven 
jewels of the law, etc. In Greece, as well as in China, there 
are seven sages, there is the seven-armed candlestick of the 
Jews, the seven gifts of the spirit among the Christians, etc. 

SEXUAL ETHICS. O. C. IV, 2675-2676. Republished in Horn, 
of Science. 

SHAKESPEARE, THE ORIGINAL OF THE DROESHOUT. 
O. C. XX, 572-573. An oil painting (reproduced for frontis- 
piece) has been brought to light, which may be the original 
from which the famous Droeshout engraving was made. 

SHAKESPEARE? WHO WROTE. Illustrated. O. C. XVUI, 
65-106. Without making original independent research, the 
author thinks the evidence which has been collected goes to 
prove that the William Shakespeare who wrote the poems is 
not the William Shaksper of the documents, the owner of New 
Place. He also considers the identification of the poet with 
Lord Bacon as fantastical and without support 

SHAKU, SOYEN, AT KAMAKURA. With illustration. O. C. 
XXI, 123. 

SIGNETS, BADGES AND MEDALS. Fully illustrated. O. C. 
XIV, 284-300. At first, Christianity was but one religion among 
several that had been imported from the Orient. Therefore, it 
is not surprising to find Christian graves in the catacombs 
adorned with symbols that were later to be spurned as pagan. 
The illustrations show many Christian gems, seals, medals and 
decorations from the catacombs that bear a miscellaneous as- 
sortment of symbols — swastika, chrisma, solar disk, phenix, Ish- 
thys, as well as Roman and maltese crosses. 

SIGNIFICANCE OF NAMING THINGS IN THE NUR- 
SERY. O. C. XIII, 6G^^2. See *. v. "Naming." 



174 PHILOSOPHY AS A SCIENCE. 

SILOAM INSCRIPTION, THE. O. C XVII, 662-665. The 
stone records the completion of the water tunnel built for the 
purpose of supplying Jerusalem with water. It is reproduced 
here and translated with philological and historical explana- 
tions. 

SIMIANS, RECENT PHOTOGRAPHS OF. Illustrated. O. C. 
XXI, 169-175. Republished in Rise of Man, 

SIN AGAINST THE HOLY GHOST, THE. O. C. Ill, 1904- 
1905. Republished in Fund. Prob. 

SIXTH SENSE, THE. Illustrated. O. C. XXII, 591-596. The 
faculty of prophetic vision was supposed to accompany a per- 
son who was born with six fingers or six toes. For this rea- 
son, Pope Sixtus IV is represented with six fingers in the 
"Sistine Madonna," and St. Joseph is furnished with six toes 
in Raphael's famous "Marriage of the Virgin." The article 
is illustrated by these famous pictures and their details. 

SKELETON AS A REPRESENTATION OF DEATH AND 
THE DEAD. Illustrated. O. C. XXII, 620-633. See j. v. 
"Death.'' 

SMITH, GOLDWIN, ON MORALITY AND RELIGION. O. 
C. V, 2765-2708. See s, v. "Morality, etc." 

SMITH, OLIVER H. P., A COMPOSER IN THE PULPIT. 
O. C. XII, 698-699. 

SOCIAL PROBLEMS. O. C. II, 822. K brief note on two 
articles on economic subjects, in behalf of taxation on real 
estate and luxuries in preference to an income tax. 

SOCIALISM AND ANARCHISM. O. C. V, 2856-2857. Re- 
published in Horn, of Science, 

SOCRATES, A FORERUNNER OF CHRISTIANITY. Illus- 
trated. O. C XXI, 523-527. Some features of his soul were 
incorporated into the history of the life of Jesus, where they 
helped to build up that great ideal of a new era, the figure of 
Christ, which is still exerting its power upon the present age. 

SOLSTITIAL TEMPLES ACCORDING TO LOCKYER. Illus- 
trated. O. C. XX, 243-248. Extensive quotations from The 
Dawn of Astronomy, in comment on Larkin's "Waning of the 
Light of Egypt" 



SUMMARIES OF ARTICLES. 175 

f =S 

SOUL AN ENERGY? IS THR O. C IX, 4362-4365. Reply 
to Mr. C. H. Reeve's article, "The Soul an Energy." 

SOUL AND GOD, THE UNMATERIALITY OF. Mon. VIII, 
415-445- In reply to the Hon. Chas. H. Giase. Republished in 
God, 

SOUL AND THE ALL, THE. O. C. IX, 4353-4354- In answer 
to Mr. Geo. M. McCrie's "Imaginary Experiment," in which 
Mr. McCrie follows Dr. Lewins and his solipsism. 

SOUL HUMAN. O. C. Ill, 2003-2004. Republished in Homilies 
of Science. 

SOUL IN SCIENCE AND RELIGION. Monist XVI, 219-253. 
This article is a continuance of the criticism of Fechner's view 
of the soul, but applied to movements of the present time, such 
as the Society of Psychical Research and man's anxiety to 
prove the spirituality and immortality of the soul. St. Paul's 
view of the spiritual body is discussed and, though pre-scientific 
conceptions of the soul are rejected, it is insisted that they are 
oj if they were true. See also "Fechner's View of Life After 
Death." 

SOUL, LIFE AND THE. Mon. XVIII, 192-216. See s, v. 
"Life." 

SOUL-LIFE AND THE PRESERVATION OF FORM. O. C. 
IV, 2285-2286. Republished in Soul of Man. 

SOUL-LIFE, CENTRAL AND PERIPHERAL. O. C III, 
1938- 1941. Republished in Soul of Man. 

SOUL-LIFE, COMMUNISM OF. O. C. IV, 2398-2399. Re- 
published in Soul of Man. 

SOUL-LIFE, NATURE OF. Illustrated. O. C III, 1926-1929. 
Republished in Soul of Man. 

SOUL-LIFE OF ANIMALS AND PLANTS. Illustrated. O. C. 
III. 1914-1917. Republished in Soul of Man. 

SOUL OF MAN, SOME REVIEWS OF. ,0. C. V, 2777. Com- 
ments on reviews in The Week, Independent, Christian Union 
and Reform Advocate. 

SOUL OF THE UNIVERSE. O. C. Ill, 2071-2074. Repub- 
lished in Soul of Man. 



176 PHILOSOPHY AS A SCIENCE. 

SOUL, UNITY OF THE. O. C. V, 2883-2884. Republished in 
Homilies of Science. 

SPACE AND TIME. O. C III, 1600-1602. Criticising Kant's 
definition of space and time as ideal forms of the thinking 
subject on the ground that Kant confuses the words ''ideal*' 
and "subjective." Though space and time may be considered 
ideal in so far as they are abstract conceptions, yet space is 
a real property of objects. 

SPACE OF FOUR DIMENSIONS. Monist XVIII, 471-475. 
Though tri-dimensional space cannot be represented in two- 
dimensional space, it can be indicated as is done when a cube 
is drawn on paper. By analogy the author constructs, with the 
aid of mirrors, a corresponding indication of four-dimensional 
space in our three-dimensional space. Republished in Founda- 
tions of Mathematics. 

SPACE, PROBLEM OF THE THREE DIMENSIONS OF. 
O. C. VII, 3721-3724. Republished in Primer of Philosophy. 

SPACIAL SENSE, THE. O. C. IV, 2697. The origin of the 
spacial sense was formerly interpreted as caused by the con- 
vergence of the two lines of vision, which is disproved by the 
experience of one-eyed persons. The simplest explanation is 
to regard it as an automatically operating interpretation of 
motion-experiences. 

SPANISH WAR, A FEW SUGGESTIONS CONCERNING. 
O. C. XII, 436-438. In the future we should be better prepared 
for the emergencies of war — ^both in equipment and diplomapy. 

SPENCER^ HERBERT. With portrait. O. C. XVIII, 1-2. A 
characterization of the classical exponent of agnosticism written 
on the occasion of his death. 

SPENCER, HERBERT, ON THE ETHICS OF KANT. O. C. 
II, 1155-1160; 1165-1169; Mon. II, 512-526. Republished in Kant 
and spencer. 

SPENCER'S HEDONISM AND KANT'S ETHICS OF DUTY. 
Monist XVIII, 306-315. Kant's position is supported and ex- 
plained for those who have the quite general impression that 
Kant is weak in his ethical position and that Spencer's hedon- 
ism is on firm ground. The author is convinced that, though 
the principles of hedonistic ethics are favored by a large num- 



SUMMARIES OF ARTICLES. 177 

ber of broad-minded and serious men, its errors exercise a 
baneful influence upon the rising generation. 

SPENCERIAN AGNOSTICISM. O. C. V, 2951-2957. Mostly 
incorporated in Kant and Spencer. 

SPINAL CORD AND MEDULLA OBLONGATA. Illustrated. 
O. C. IV, 2239-2243. Republished in Soul of Man. Also re- 
printed in Psych, of the Nervous System, 

SPINNING DAMSEU THE. Illustration. 0. C. XVIII, 568- 
569. A reproduction and description of a bas-relief discovered 
by M. J. DeMorgan at Susa, which is a beautiful specimen 
of Oriental art of ancient Persia. 

SPINOZA, BENEDICTUS DE. O. C. XX, 439- English and 
Dutch versions of Latin lines found under what is almost a 
contemporary engraving of a portrait of Spinoza. A reproduc- 
tion of the engraving forms the frontispiece of The Open 
Court, and also of Spinoza's Short Treatise, where the lines 
are also republished in the three languages. 

SPIRIT OR GHOST. Mon. XII, 365. The existence of spirit 
is accepted, but a belief in ghosts is disclaimed. 

SPIRITISM AND IMMORTALITY. O. C. II, 1360-1362. Re- 
published in Horn, of Science. 

STAGE, A REFORMED. O. C. XXII, 617-619. The desira- 
bility of an endowed theater which would have no excuse to 
pander to a vulgar taste on the ground that lower class enter- 
tainment pays better than higher class. 

STATE A PRODUCT OF NATURAL GROWTH. O. C. VIII, 
3944-3948, 3952-3955- Republished in Nature of the State. 

STATE, AUTHORITY OF, AND THE RIGHT TO REV- 
OLUTION. O. C. VIII, 3961-3963. Republished in Nature of 
the State. 

STATE BASED UPON REVOLUTION, THE MODERN. 
O. C. VIII, 3970-3971. See s. v. "Revolution." 

STATE EXIST? DOES THE. 0. C. VI, 3449-3451. Repub- 
lished in Nature of the State. 

STAUROLATRY. Illustrated. O. C XIII, 546-558. Discussing 
the history of cross-worship. 



178 PHILOSOPHY AS A SCIENCE. 

STILL SMALL VOICE, THE. Mon. XIV, 194-206. Repub- 
lished in pamphlet form. 

STONE WORSHIP. Illustrated. O. C. XVIII, 45-52, 661-686. 
Stone worship is a very ancient form of religion, of which 
traces are found in all nations, including the patriarchal age, 
recorded in the Bible. The present article mentions the stone 
worship of the Phoenicians, and compares the Phoenician Batyl 
to the Hebrew Bethel. Such Bethels or holy stones are found 
on many ancient coins or medals, many of which are here 
reproduced. Jacob's dream serves as an illustration of the 
religious spirit of these pagan views. Joshua erected a circle 
of stones. The Egyptian obelisks correspond to the pillars 
of the Solomonic temple. Babylonian kudurrus, Judean maz- 
zebas, the English Stonehenge, and other stone monuments in 
various parts of the globe are treated successively. 

STONE WORSHIP, COMMENTS ON: AN AFTERMATH. 
O. C. XX, 289-294. Additional comments on the Caaba, the 
stone pillar called Lot's wife, and the modern ceremony of 
the so-called Ancient Order of Druids, accompanied by illus- 
trations. 

STONE'S FALL, THE. O. C. II, 1256. A brief explanation, 
written in reply to an article, "Causes and Natural Laws.'* 
Incorporated in Fund. Prob. 

STRAIGHT LINE, CONSTRUCTION OF THE. Mon. XIX, 
402-407. In comment on Mr. Francis C. Russell's article, "A 
Modern Zeno," both as regards his criticism of Lobatchevsky's 
parallel axiom, and his construction of the straight line, which, 
though claiming to utilize only the compasses, nevertheless pre- 
supposes the existence of many straight lines, as will be 
seen at a glance from the illustrative diagram. 

STRIKE OF THE HORSES. O. C VIII, 4275-4277, A fable 
is used to illustrate economical principles. Let everyone fight 
for his rights by all legitimate means, but it should be under- 
stood that under normal conditions the prosperity of one 
contributes to the prosperity of all. 

STRUGGLE IN THE FAR EAST. Illustrated. O. C. XVIII, 
710-722. The Russo-Japanese war is held to have been in- 
evitable. Fifteen photographs illustrate the battle of Shou 
Shan Pao. 



SUMMARIES OF ARTICLES. 179 

SUGGESTIBILITY OF CROWDS, THE. O. C. IV, 2197- 
2200. Republished in Soul of Man. 

SUGGESTION AND SUGGESTIBILITY. Illustrated. O. C. 
Ill, 2032-2056. Republished in Soul of Man, 

SUICIDE BE JUSTIFIED, CAN? O. C. V, 2911-2913. In 
this article are summed up the opinions of a number of promi- 
nent men, clergymen and others, on the subject of suicide, 
following upon a statement of Dr. Felix Adler, that, at least, 
in certain cases of incurable disease, suicide may be justifi- 
able. The editorial position also is that we have no right 
to sit in judgment on the man who takes his own life; that 
suicide should be discouraged, but that the arguments of its 
severe judges is neither humane, nor Christian, nor religious, 
nor Biblical. 

SUPERSCIENTIFIC AND PURE REASON. O. C. IV, 2509- 
2511. Republished in Fund. Prob. 

SUPERSTITION IN RELIGION AND SCIENCE. O. C. II, 
S37-839. See s. V. "Religion." 

SUPREME COURT AND THE POST OFFICE. O. C. XVIII, 
348-350. With regard to the adverse decision about the reduced 
book rate in 1904. 

SYMBOLS, THE PERSISTENCE OF. Illustrated. O. C. 
XXII, 391-397- As instanced by the double eagle and the 
staff of Hermes. The former may be traced to an ancient 
Phrygian monument at Boghaz-Koi; and the latter is much 
older than Greek mythology, and doubtless consisted originally 
of a solar disk surmounted by a crescent. 

TAOISM. O. C. X, 5155-5157. Incorporated in the Introduc- 
tion of Lao Tze*s Tao-Teh-King. 

TAOISM AND BUDDHISM. Illustrated. O. C. XX, 654-667. 
Republished in Chinese Life and Customs. 

TAXATION OF CAPITAL DISCOURAGES THRIFT. O. C. 
XVI, 182-183. On the principle that the taxation of a com- 
modity reduces the production of the object more than the 
returns of the tax. The income tax and single tax theories 
are discussed. 



i8o PHILOSOPHY AS A SCIENCE. 

TEST OF PROGRESS. O. C. V, 2915-2917. Republished in 
Horn, of Set. 

THANKSGIVING-DAY. O. C. Ill, 19SS. Republished in Horn. 
of Sci. In The Open Court it is credited to C P. Geoffrey, 

a pseudonym. 

THANKSGIVING DAY. O. C. XVI, 689-69a A few words 

in defense of taking life to sustain life. 

THEOLOGY AS A SCIENCE. Mon. XII, 544-567; XIII, 24- 
37. Republished in God, 

THEOLOGY, MODERN: AN EXPLANATION AND JUS- 
TIFICATION. O. C. XXI, 684-687. In comment on Mr. 
H. F. Bell's "Criticism of Modem Theology." Modem The- 
ology is in a state of transition, but its course of development 
is rapid enough and should not be unduly hastened. 

THEOLOGY, PROBLEMS OF MODERN. O. C. XXII, 234- 
246. The article discusses the following topics: "Religion 
based upon eternal truth, not on historical facts;" "A sum- 
mary of higher criticism;" "Christianity a child of paganism;" 
"Diverse attitudes;" "Other possibiHties" (if Christianity had 
not become the world religion some other religion, such as 
Mithraism, Manicheeism, etc, would have assumed that place 
and would not have been very different); and "The dispersion 
of the Jews." Here for the first time the theory is proposed 
that the Jews have not scattered more than other nations, 
but the peculiar phenomenon of the dispersion is produced 
by their preservation; while other nations are assimilated, Jews 
remain Jews, and this is due to their religion, which has been 
a monotheistic religion since the days of the Babylonian exile. 

THEOLOGY, TENDENCIES OF MODERN. O. C. XXII, 
407-411. In comment on Mr. Bell's "Vital Theology" and Mr. 
Kampmeier's "Importance of the God-Ideal," both of whom 
agree in proposing to find the only true ideal of religion in 
God himself, offering this as the substance of a universal creed 
in which all could agree. Here the view is held that, though 
the churches may g^row to agree in their belief as to the main 
facts, they will not become uniform in their religious insti- 
tutions, since different temperaments need different expression. 



SUMMARIES OF ARTICLES. i8i 

— — — ^ "^ 

The present tendency to a reaction against religious myths 
will grow into tolerance when their spirit is understood after 
the letter is discarded. 

THEOPHANIES. Illustrated. O. C. XX, 705-712. Republished 
in Story of Samson. 

THIBET, THE FIRST CHRISTIAN MISSIONARIES IN. 
Illustrated. O. C. XII, 418-435. See s. v. "Christian." 

THINGS-IN-THEMSELVES, ARE THERE? Mon. II, 225- 
265. Republished in Surd of Metaphysics. 

THIRD COMMANDMENT, THE. O. C. XVIII, 502-503. The 
current interpretation of taking the name of the Lord in vain 
as meaning profanity or blasphemy is not generally agreed upon 
by scholars as correct. "In vain*' probably should read "with- 
out offering a sacrifice." 

THOMSON, WILLIAM, LORD KELVIN. Obituary note. 
Mon. XVIII, 151-152. 

THOUGHT-CONCEPTION, C. S. WAKE ON. O. C. VII, 
3964. Brief notes on an article about the origin of language 
and reason. 

THOUGHT— FORMS, THE ORIGIN OF, Mon. Ill, 120. 
Suggested by an article of Dr. H. Potonie, in which the state- 
ment is made that all forms of thought, as well as organisms, 
have originated in the struggle for life. The following topics 
are treated: Thought-forms and the forms of existence, the 
problem of apriority, conservation of matter and energy, causa- 
tion, the meaning of "necessity," and modern logic 

THOUGHT, NATURE OF. O. C. Ill, 2009-2012. Republished 
in Soul of Man, 

THREE CHARACTERISTICS. O. C. XIX, 563-567. A Bud- 
dhist formula, versified and set to the music of the Andante 
of Beethoven's Seventh Symphony. The prose formula is re- 
published in The Dharma. 

TIDINGS OF JOY. O. C. IV, 2643. Buddhism and Christi- 
anity celebrate the birth of a Saviour; both are religions of 
resignation. Wherever a religion of self-denial has been 
preached, it has been a gospel of cheer. The religion of sci- 



i82 PHILOSOPHY AS A SCIENCE. 



ence, while demanding self-denial, does not preach asceticism, 
but, if their hearts are ready to receive the gospel, a religion of 
joy to rich and poor alike. 

TIELE ON BABYLONIAN MYTHS. O. C. XV, 436-437- 
Professor Tiele's opinion is quoted from his Babyl. Assyr. 
Geschichte. 

TOLSTOY, A TRIBUTE TO COUNT. O. C XXII, 701-702, 
In honor of his 8oth birthday. A recent portrait, with Tolstoy's 
signature, furnishes the frontispiece. 

TOOL, THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE. O. C. VII, 3735-3741. 
Republished as one of the Philosophical Pamphlets. 

TRAGEDY AND THE PROBLEM OF LIFE. O. C. II, 
1120-1122. Republished in Fund. Prob. 

TRAGEDY OF A LONELY THINKER. O. C. XXII, 744-74?. 
A discussion of the class represented by Dr. Charles de Medici, 
who, though a fine type of man, wasted his life in the pursuit 
of an ignis fatuus and died in poverty, of a broken heart. 
Though equipped with considerable mathematical knowledge, he 
was convinced that he had squared the circle. The tragic ele- 
ment comes in when we consider that a small fault, situated, 
however, at the core of a man's soul in his false estimate of 
his own capabilities, leads him along the path to certain failure. 

TRAVELING DURING A RAILROAD STRIKE. O. C. VHI, 
4140-4142. Description of the author's experience in trying 
to make a hundred-mile journey; including a report of the 
public opinion expressed by his fellow passengers. The ulti- 
mate basis of all established law is the common will of the 
people. If labor unions represent the common will, they can 
dictate the law. We love progress, but should beware of a 
side-switch which endangers liberty. 

TREASON AND REFORM. O. C. VIII, 3971-3972. Repub- 
lished in Nature of the State. 

TRINITY, THE. O. C. XVI, 612-613. A brief summary of 
the prevalence of the Trinity-conception in all ages and climes; 
its persistence down to the present is not surprising, because 
of the conservatism belonging to religious matters, and also 
because of the natural foundation which it finds in the facts 
of life. 



SUMMARIES OF ARTICLES. 183 

TRINITY, DOGMA OF THE. O. C X, 4771-4773- The He- 
brew word for spirit is feminine, and among the Semites, the 
Holy Ghost was conceived as feminine rather than neuter. 
It became neuter among Greek Christians, whose word pneuma 
is of the neuter gender. 

TRINITY IDEA. Illustrated. O. C. XI, 85-98. There are many 
different Trinity concepts, both philosophical and religious; 
the Hegelian, the Brahman, the Buddhist, and some Christian 
conceptions, including mariolatry, are treated here. 

TRUMBULL, GEN. M. M., IN MEMORY OF. O. C VIII, 
4145-4147. Quotations from many letters of personal tribute 
from friends at home and abroad. 

TRUTH. O. C. VII, 3596-3597. Republished in Primer of Phil. 

TRUTH, LIVING THE. O. C. IV (No. 167), 2589-2590. See 
s. V. "Living." 

TRUTH, UNITY OF. O. C IV, 2501-2502. Republished in 
Horn, of Set, 

TYCHISM, THE FOUNDER OF. Mon. Ill, 571-622. See s. v, 
"Peirce." 

TYPE, AFTER THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE. O. C. VI, 
3234-3236. Republished in Twelve Tales. 

UNIVERSAL, THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE. O. C. V, 3051- 
3052. A criticism of Dr. R. N. Foster's "Universal and Par- 
ticular." 

UNIVERSE MORAL? IS THE. O. C. Ill, 2050-2051. Reply 
to Mr. Francis Ellingwood Abbot 

UNKNOWABLE, THE. O. C. I, 667-669. Partly incorporated 
in Fund. Prob. 

VEGETARIANISM. O. C. XII, 565-570. It is more important 
how we eat than what we eat, but on the whole a mixed diet 
is best. The sentimental objection to eating meat, if carried to 
a consistent conclusion, would make all food disgusting, and the 
use of brushes made of bristles a sin. Even Buddha did not 
condemn meat-eating, and Christ said, "Not that which goeth 
into the mouth defileth a man.'' 



i84 PHILOSOPHY AS A SCIENCE. 

VENUS OF MILO, THE. Illustrated. O. C XXIII, 257-262. 
Since art books fail to give any explanation of the history of 
this famous statue, the author here briefly recapitulates the prob- 
able course of events as taught by the simple facts of the statue 
itself, its workmanship, its mutilated condition and the place of 
its discovery. 

VERA ICON, KING ABGAR AND ST. VERONICA, THE. 
Illustrated. O. C. XXII, 663. 

VICARIOUS ATONEMENT, THE. O. C. Ill, 1502. Brief com- 
ment on Mr. Wm. R. Thayer's "Aspects, Christian and Human." 

VIOLIN MUSIC, A NEW SYSTEM OF NOTATION FOR. 
O. C, 584-591. A suggestion for a system more in accordance 
with the construction of the violin than the usual notation, 
which was formed for the piano. 

VITALISM AND THE CONSERVATION OF ENERGY. O. C 
III, 2047-2049. Republished in Soul of M:in. 

VOCATION, THE. O. C III, 2027-2028. Republished in Hom- 
ilies of Science. 

WAGNER, RICHARD. O. C. Ill, 1850-1854. An account of tbe 
life, work and philosophy of the great composer 

WAKE, C. S., ON THOUGHT-CONCEPTION. O. C VII, 

3694. See s. V. "Thought-Conception." 

WATER OF LIFE. With illustration. O. C. XVII, 112-114. 
A piece of Chinese sculpture, whose interpretation is a parallel 
to the story of Christ and the woman of Samaria. 

WHENCE AND WHITHER. O. C. XVI, 74-85. In reply to 
critics. Republished in Whence and Whither. 

WIDOWS TWO MITES, THE. O. C. XVII, 352-36a The 

gospel story and its Buddhist parallel 

WILL, TH. RIBOT ON. O. C. I, 455-458; 487-490. A r6sum^ 
of Ribot's Diseases of the Will, 

WITCH PROSECUTION. O. C. X, 4892-4894. Republished in 
Hist, of the Devil. 

WITCH PROSECUTION, ABOLITION OF. O. C. X, 4946- 
4949. Republished in Hist, of the Devil. 



SUMMARIES OF ARTICLES. 185 

WITCH PROSECUTION AFTER THE REFORMATION. 
O. C. X, 4941-4942. Republished in Hist of the Devil. 

WITCHCRAFT AND MIRACLES. O. C. X, 4955-4957- Re- 
published in Hist, of the Devil 

WITCHCRAFT AND THE REUGION OF SCIENCE. O. C. 
X, 4923-4926. Republished in Hist of the Devil 

WITCHCRAFT, BELIEF IN. O. C X, 4883-4885. Republished 
in Hist, of the Devil 

WOMAN, EMANCIPATION OF. O. C. V, 2747-274!^. Re- 
published in Homilies of Science, 

WOMAN'S SUFFRAGE. 0. C. VII, 3822. Some advantages 
there would be if the privileges of the ballot were extended to 
women. 

WORDS AND THEIR MEANING. O. C. VIII, 4234-4238. A 
reply to Mr. Ellis Thurtell, who takes exception to the author's 
including himself in the phrase "We Christians." The article 
also includes a definition of agnosticism. See also "Names." 

WORLD-RENUNCIATION, A MODERN INSTANCE OF. Il- 
lustrated. XIII, 111-117. Exemplified in the Countess M. deS. 
Canavarro. 

WU TAO TZE'S NIRVANA PICTURE. O. C. XVI, 163-166. 
Republished to accompany the picture. 

YAHVEH AND MANITOU. Mon. IX, 382-415. A comparison 
of Yahveh, the god of the Semites, to Manitou, the god of the 
American Indians. The parallels to the god of nature are in- 
teresting and prove that both represent a typical phase in the de- 
velopment of worship. The Rechabites, and later on the Nazirees, 
clung to the original conception of Manitou longer than the 
mass of the people. They hesitated to use for religious serv- 
ices, hewn altars, anything touched by human hands, and even 
objected to making fire with flint or stone. They clung to the 
fire sticks, let their hair grow, abstained from wine (as an 
artificial product not because it was intoxicating), and lived in 
tents, not in houses. The American Indians had similar no- 
tions and objected, for instance, to the use of the plow, looking 



i86 PHILOSOPHY AS A SCIENCE. 



upon the white man's civilization as irreligious on account of 
its constant interference with nature. 

YAHVEH, AN IMAGE OF. O. C XXIII, 189-190. A brief 
note on a previous frontispiece accompanying Professor W. Max 
Miiller's article, "The Semitic God of Tahpanhes." 

YAHVEH, THE ORACLE OF; URIM AND THUMMIM; THE 
EPHOD AND THE BREASTPLATE OF JUDGMENT. Mon. 
XVII, 365-388. The ancient Hebrew oracle of the Urim and 
Thummim was not used after the time of Solomon, but was 
regarded with great awe even by the iconoclastic reformers of 
the post-Exilic period. The nature of the Urim and Thummim 
was forgotten, and we may assume that the descriptions of it 
in the Priestly code are no longer reliable. We have to fall 
back on the historical writings where the oracle is mentioned 
in order to form a correct idea of it. In the present article, the 
breastplate of judgment is referred to the Babylonian tablet of 
destiny and to Enmeduranki's tablet of the mysteries of heaven 
and earth. The Urim and Thummim, the instruments by which 
lots were drawn, are compared to the Chinese system of div- 
ination, the Yang and Yin, and attention is drawn to the fact 
that the Chinese, too, have a tablet of Fuh-Hi containing the 
mysteries of heaven and earth. Incidentally, the ephod is de- 
scribed as a pouch which is carried under the breastplate and 
contained the Urim and Thummim. 

YELLOW PERIL, THE. O. C. XVIII, 430-433- Republished 
for the most part in Chinese Thought. 

YIN CHIH WEN, A RELIGIOUS TRACT OF CATHAY. 
O. C. XX, 259-265. Republished in book form. 

YOUTH, THE PRICE OF ETERNAL. 0. C. I979-I98a Re- 
published in Homilies of Science, 

YULE-TIDE AND CHRISTMAS. 0. C. II, 1367. 

ZERO IN MATHEMATICS, FUNCTION OF. O. C. 11, 1146- 
1147. Analogy of zero in mathematics to nothingness in logic. 

ZODIACS OF DIFFERENT NATIONS. Fully illustrated. 
O. C. XX, 458-483. Republished in Chinese Thought. 



SUMMARIES OF ARTICLES. 187 



ZOROASTER'S CONTRIBUTIONS TO CHRISTIANITY. Il- 
lustrated. O. C. XIX, 409-417. The influence exercised by 
Mazdaism on Christianity is still seen in the tradition of the 
Magi, who come from the East to greet the new-born Saviour. 
Cyrus, who was called by Isaiah, the Messiah of Yahveh, was 
friendly to the cause of the Jews and influenced their religion. 
The holy fire for incense was kept up in the temple at Jerusalem 
at his command, and it continues to-day in the Christian 
churches as the eternal lamp. 

ZOROASTRIAN RELIGION AND THE BIBLE. O. C. XX, 
434-435- Importance of the knowledge of Persian religion to 
ministers of Christianity. 

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INDEX 



Abte Effcndi, 98. 

Abbott» David P., 153. 

Abbott* Lyman, 111. 

Aberration, religion an, $$. 

Abidharma, the» 68, 93. 

Abnormal, psychology, 164. 

Abolition, of witch persecution, 184. 

Abortive, philosophiea^ 2a. 

Absolute, the, 93; zero of feeling, 14. 

Abstract, ideas, 93, 176. 

Abstraction, 93. 

Abyssinian, Queen of Sheba, 164. 

Accad, 93. (See Akkadians.) 

Accuracy, scientific, 23. 

Achillea, spear cures its own wounds^ 

143. 

Acropolis, the, 93. 

Activity, pure, 41; loctUzation of, 

143- 
Actuality, 5. 

Actualization of justice, 140. 

Acvaghosha, the great Buddhist phil- 
osopher, 76, 

Adler, Dr. Felix, on justifiable sui- 
cide, 179. 

Administrative Nihilism, Huxley's, 
quoted, 134. 

Aftermath, an, stone worship, 178. 

Age of science, the advent of, 9. 

Agnosticism, refuted, x; fallacies of, 
33; Spencer's, 34, 177; Dr. Cams 
opposed to, 52; satire on, 92; R. G. 
IngersoU on, 93; summaries of ar- 
ticles on, 93-94; journal of, 133; 
and monism, 150, 185; speeches on, 
167; salutatory, 170. 

Ahriman, the Persian satan, 145. 



Aim, of author, i, a8; of life, man's 

divinity, 49. 
Ainus, the, inhabitants of Yezo, 94. 
Akkadians, the. Trinity-idea of, 153. 
Aladdin's lamp, childhood's romance, 

95. 
Alesamenos, and "the spottcrudfix," 

97. 

Aliens wanted, 95. 

Alliance, Haeckel's theses for a mon- 
istic, 131. 

Allegory, "Nothing lost but dross," 
117. 

Allegiance of clergy to dogma, no. 

All, the, constitution of, 20; re- 
flected in art, 27; soul of, 87, 175 
(see also De Rerum Naturd), 

Alpha and Omega, the, 95. 

Alphabet, the £g3rptian, 170. 

Alpine lake, an, clearness of thought 
and, 33. 

Altgelt, (jOv., of Illinois, 95. 

Ambrose, St., 154. 

American, the, board of missions, 82; 
ideal, 95; Indian Manitou-Yahveh, 
185; railway union, 1x6. 

Americanism, in the Roman church, 
95; and imperialism, xai. 

AMITABHA.* 76. 

Amitabha, outlined, 95. 

Amraphel, 131. 

Anabolism, 17. 

Analogy, of the surd to the irra- 
tional, 35; theology to astrology, 56; 
memory to the phonograph, 161; 
constructing space by, 176; of zero 



* Titles of books by Dr, Paul Carus are printed in small caps, 

189 



igo 



INDEX 



Ananda Mctteja, 96; Maitrcjap M3, 

144- 
Anardaaia, Clncaco, 95*96. 
Aaarduam, 96; mi hliiM and, 174. 



135- 
Aaceators, w o ti hi p o^ iii; relicioii 

m ottt, i66. 
Aadest, dcril-belieli^ 57; Greece. 

demonology of, 115. 
Angel of Angsborg, 96. 
ANGELUS SILESIUS, 6$. 
Angelas Si]eshis» mysticism and, 96, 

to2t 1 5 J- (Johannes SchcBci .) 
Animals, God<onoeiKioo» and sool- 

Hie among, 97. I7S- 
Annrxation, ff6. 
Antrim, SL. 108. 
Anschantmg, 9^ i6o> 
Anthropogencsis^ moral proUems o^ 

49; of the Igorot, 13$. 
Anthropogeny, Haeckd's^ 131. 
Anthropoid apes, 96. 
Anti-riTisection, immorality of, 96. 
Antiqtiitx, the deril in, 57. 
Ants, religion of, 97. 
Antshis, 97. 

"Anjmess" in mathematics, 41. 
Apes, 49. 

Apocalyptic litera t ur e , w >>>• ^56' 
Apocrypha, 97, 118. 
Apollonins of Tyana, ia6. 
Apttkitts, 89. 
A priori, the, 41; and heredity, 133. 

^■ ri or ity, problem of, x8i. (See 
'^Vgbt'fovms.) 

*»nr» 150. 
1^97. 

cratonanla, 97. 
fHutam, 116. 



103; 



114; 



63: 



III. 



137. 
Amd^ laflL 

Art, philoaophy o^ jy; 
65; offien^]^73; 
■antic, 97; 

105. iss; 

religioas, 133; 

138; a nr if lit xViiian, X77* 
Artides, editorid, Min— ai i » o^ 913- 

187. 

«5$- 

137; 
160. 
St. 

and dances of deadi, 114. 
Arts, congress of. at St 
Aryan deities, 138^ 
Ascent of man, 97. 
Asceticism, 133, x8i. 
Asfarajit's stanaa, 97. 
Aspects, snhJectiTe and olvectrre, 14- 

15; Christian and homan, 184. 
A^irations, onirersa], harmony o^ 

X32. 
Assimilation, 17. 

Association philosophy, the, 9^ x6i. 
Assyrian poems, 98, 136. 
Astray, Christianity, how far, X08. 
Astrology, and theology, 56. 
Astronomy, and theonomy, 56. 
Atheism, (Sod of, 137. 
Atheist, an, "who lores (kHt," SS- 
Atman, the, 103. 
Atmosphere, intellectval, 9. 
Atoms, sonlx theory of, 14a. 
Atonement, Ticarious, 184. 
Attention, 38. 
Attitude, of mind, 2$, 
Auctioneer, 36. 
Augustine, St., 64. 



INDEX 



191 



Authority, state, 177. 






Biedermann, Edward, 73, 89. 


Augustus, as a saviour. 


107. 




Bigelow, Poultney, 160. 


Autobiography, spiritual. 


88. 




Billia, Prof. L. M., 44* 45- 


Author's aim, aS. 






Biochemical mental processes, 164. 


Avatars, the, 98. 






Biology, of consciottsness, 16. 


Awareness, 15-16. 






Birthday, Prof. Ernst Mach's 70th, 


Awe, religious, no. 






144; Count Tolstoy's 80th, i8a; 


Axiom, the, 31, 41, 98. 






pagan saviours' and Christ's, 154. 


Axum, 164. 






Blasphemy, misinterpreted, x8i. 
Blessed is "he who trusts in the 


Babel and Bibh, 131. 






truth," 54- 


Babism, 98. 






Bliss, of a noble life, xoo. 


Babylon, healing by conjuration in 


Bluntness, 143. 


ancient, 59, 98; Babylonian 


exile. 


Bodhisattva, the, loi. 


180. 






Bodington, Mrs. Alice, lu, 167. 


Bacon-Shakespeare, 173. 






Body, the resurrection of, i68. 


Bad "—for me, but worse for 


him," 


Boer war, xia. 


99. 






Boltzmann, L., xoo. 


Badges, pagan-Christian, 


173. 




Bolyai, 4x. 


Banking, 99. 






Bonney, Charles Carroll, xoo. 


Bartholom6, M., S15. 






Bonney, Mrs. Lydia Pratt, xoo. 


Barrows, Dr., 99. 






Bookmaking, 91. 


Basis, of ethics, 119. 






Book, China's most popular religious. 


Bata, xaa. 






83. 


Bee, the, 37. 






Book of Changes, Chinese, 78. 


Beethoven, 6, i8s. 






Boscoreale, 1x4. 


Beha U'llah, 98. 






"Boundaries, even," 4a. 


Bel Merodach, laa. 






Brain, 37, xoi, 133, 143. 


Belief, strictly criticized. 


103. 




Brahmanism, Prof. R. Garbe on, 99; 


Belligerency, in Christianity, 


99* 


modem pqrchology and, xoo. 


Ben Midrash, 99. 






Breastplate, the, of judgment, x86. 


Berkeley, 99. 






Brewer, Hon. Willis, X07. 


Bernauer, Agnes, 99. 






BRIDE OF CHRIST, THE, 6x. 


Besant, Mrs. Annie, ia6. 






Bride of Christ, illustrated, xox. 


Bethel, 178. 






Brides, Olympian, 156. 


Bhagavadgita, the, and 


Prof. 


Garbe, 


Briggs, heresy trial, 167. 


99; philosophy of, 131 


i 




Brodrick, Harold, a modem Christ, 


Bible, the, Buddhist, 71 


; as an idol. 


106. 


100; stone worship In, 


178. 




Buckham, Rev. J. W., 152. 


Biblical research, 38. 






Bnddha, "the sweetest of the pa- 



192 



INDEX 



gans," 70; summaries of articlea 
on, 1 01 '103. 

Buddhism, origin of, 72; modem psy- 
chology and, 100; relation to Chria* 
tianity, 109; great moral maxims 
of, 128; summaries of articles on, 
ioi>i03; in Japan, 138. 

BUDDHISM AND ITS CHRIS- 
TIAN CRITICS, 71. 

Buddhist, Goethe a, 129; conception 
of immortality, 136; formula, 181. 

Budge, Prof. £. A. Wallis, 17: 

Buechner, Prof. L., 103, i66. 

Burbank, Luther, 144. 

Burke, J. Butler, 141. 

Busch, Wilhelm, 66, 103. 

Caaha, the, 103, 178. 

Caligraphy, Chinese, 79. 

Canavarro, Countess, M. de S., 104, 
185. 

CANON OF REASON AND VIR- 
TUE, 81. 

Capitalists, workingmen as, 103. 

Cameri, Bartholomew, 104. 

Cams, Dr. Gustav, 150, 151. 

Carus, Titus Lucretius, 87. 

Catabolism, 17. 

Catacombs, x 14. 

Catalepsy, 14^. 

Catharine, St., of Alexandria, 104. 

Cathay, 186. 

Cathedrals, Christian art in, 1x5. 

Catholicity, of mind, 43; and science, 
x66. 

Cause, definition, xx, 12; essay on, 
29. 

Causality, 104. 

Causation, 31, X04. 

Celestial language, the, xo4* 

Centennial, Darwin and Lincoln, 1x3. 



Central America, the cross in, 113. 

Cerebellum, 104. 

ChampoUion, 170. 

Chandra Das Brothers^ 104* 

Character, 133. 

Charbonnel, Ahhi, 99, x6s* 

Charity, 104, 131. 

Chase, Hon. Charles H., 175. 

Chastity, 105. 

Chauvinism, 158. 

Ceylon, X03. 

Cherubinean Wandergr, 153. 

Chiaroscuro, of truth, ja. 

Chicago, 31, xjx. 

Chicken, the question of priority, 
xos* 

CHIEF'S DAUGHTER, THE, 91. 

Children, 47, xos. 

China, summaries of articles on, X05- 
X06, 160, 167. 

Chinese, art, 155; Book of Changes, 
78; conservatism, 79; world-con- 
ception, 79; good and evil, 99; fa- 
bles, xax; classic, X4X. 

CHINESE LIFE AND CUSTOMS, 
8S. 

CHINESE PHILOSOPHY, 77. 

CHINESE THOUGHT, 79. 

Chou Fu Tsz, X06. 

Chrisma, xo6. 

Christmas, summaries of articles on, 
X09. 

Christ, and Sampson, 59; Anubis, 
Seth and, 97; and charity, X05; 
and Christian, X07; frauds and, 
X37; seal of, X74. 

Christian, missions in China, 80; sci- 
ence, X07; gospels and Buddhism, 
129. 

Christianity, a branch of philosophy, 



INDEX 



193 



26; ineritable, 63; future of, 64; 
in relation to Buddhism, 102; the 
new, 135; in Ji^an, 138; imported 
from the Orient, 173; oldest sym- 
bol of, 174. 

Church, and state in France, X09; re- 
q>onsibility for the Inquisition, 136; 
for the laity, a scientific, 141; Rus* 
sian orthodox, 170. 

Chrysostum, St, 154. 

Circle, a, and dualism, 14. 

Circle-squarer, the, 109. 

Civilization and American Indian 
legends of Manitou, 185. 

Classic, an important, 33. 

Qean money, 109. 

Clearness and the charm of haziness, 
xio. 

Cleopatra and Ptolemy, 170. 

Clement of Alexandria, 102, 

Qeveland, President Grover, 151. 

Clock or the watches, the, zxo. 

Cogiio, ergo sum, 135. 

Cognition, knowledge, truth and, zxo; 
formal principle of, X50. 

Collaborators, Goethe and Schiller, 67. 

Columbian Exposition, the, 31. 

Columbus, Christopher, izo. 

Common sense and scientific meth- 
ods, a. 

Communal life, 46. 

Communismf of soul life, 39, 175. 

Comparisons, Buddhism and Chris* 

tianity, 73. 
Compassion, maudlin, 96. 
Con4>ulsion, 124. 
Comte Auguste, 93. 
Conceptions, of God, 127; abstract, 

176. 



Conciliation of religion with science, 
zix, X65. 

Conduct, the science of, 8. 

Confucianism, xxx, 138. 

Confusion, 23. 

Congress, of philosophy, 3x; of re- 
ligious societies, xii, 142; an ap- 
peal to U. S., 124, X54; national 
peace, X59; of orientalists, x6x. 

Conjuration, healing by, 59, X32. 

Conscience, growth of, xxx; liberty 
of, X42. 

Consciousness, and organization, x^ff; 
new theory of, 38; organ of, 39; 
summaries of articles on, xxx-xx2. 

Conservatism, Chinese, 79. 

Consistency, of the cosmos, 4; log- 
ical, 4X. 

Constantine, xo6. 

Contracts, devil, xi6. 

Contrasts, in the cosmos, 4; good 
and evil as, 58. 

Controversy, a, on form and formal 
thought, 29; ethics, 44; agnosticism, 
94; Briggs heresy trial, X67. 

Cook, Prof., 127, 

Co-ordination, and consciousness, 38. 

Continuity, of evolution, 121, 

Converse, C. Crozat, 123. 

Convert to Buddhism, X03. 

Conway, Moncure D., a militant lib- 
eral, XX 2. 

Cope, Prof. Henry, X44. 

Copernican world-conception, xio. 

Comer-stone of Christianity, 108. 

Corollaries of principle, 20. 

Cortex, the, a storehouse of memo- 
ries, 39; and consciousness, 1x2. 

Cortez, X48. 

Cosmology, art, 27, 



194 



INDEX 



Cosmos, consistency of the, 4; order 

and ethics in the, 119; omnipresent 

God in. X51. 
Cosmopolitanism, 12$. 
Coxe, Eckley B., iza. 
Crane, Rev. Frank, 94. 
Creation story, Babylonian, 122; 

Harpax and Oneiros, 156. 
Creeds, and instincts, 26; faith and, 

112. 
Crisis in Great Britain, 112. 
Crispi, Francesco, 112. 
Criterion, of philosophy, a6; of eth* 

ics, 112. 
Criticism of Kant, 33. 
Critique, scientific, and dogma, 52f. 
Critique of pure reason, Kant's, 33. 
Cross, the, summaries of articles on, 

112-X13. 
CROWN OF THORNS, THE, 89, 

113. 
Crucifix, the, animal sacrifice and, 

113. 
Cuba, 113. 
Culture, ethical, 120, 
Cuneiform tablets, 122, 13a. 
Cur deus homo, 108. 
Curtiss, Prof. Samuel Ives, 163. 
Custom House, 1x3. 
Cyrus, and Mazdaism, 149; called the 

messiah, 187. 

Dance of death, 1x4. 

Danger, hypnotism, X34. 

Darrow, Clarence, xx8. 

Darwin, Cameri's Darwinism, X04; 
centennial, 113. 

DAWN OF A NEW RELIGIOUS 
ERA AND OTHER ESSAYS, 52- 

Death, existence after, 21; summar- 
ies of articles on, X13-114. 



Decadence, senile, 147. 

Deeds, good and evil, 99. 

Defects, in psychology, 13; in phil- 
osophy, 25. 

Definition, differences in, 153; of re- 
ligion and science, 165. 

Deity, Samson, a solar, 59; Brah- 
man idea of, 76; names of days, 
138. 

Deluge legends, X15, 122. 

Demonology, mediaeval and modem, 
57 ff; summaries of articles on, 1x5. 

De Morgan, M. J., 177. 

De novo, scientific thought, 9. 

DE RERUM NATURA, poem on the 
world problem, 83, XX3. 

Descartes, X35. 

Design in nature, 1x5. 

Destiny, x86. 

Determinism, x x $. 

Deussen, Dr. Paul, 36. 

Devil, prehistoric and modem, 57, 
1XS-X16-X17. 

Dewey, Prof. John W., X36, 

Dhammapada, the, X03. 

DHARMA, THE, 68. 

Dharmapala, x 16. 

Differentiation, x8. 

Dilettantism, x x6. 

Dimensions, spacial, 42, 176. 

Dionysus, X30. 

Diplomacy, 176. 

Disasters, 9. 

Disciple of Nietsche, X3S. 

Discoveries, effect of, xx6. 

Discussion, on ethics, XX9; on mathe> 
matics, 4X. 

Disease, of politics, zi6; of philos* 

ophy, 147; of memory, X69. 
Dispersion, the, 139, x8o. 



INDEX 



IPS 



Dissolution and memory, 146. 

Destructive, criticism, 115. 

Diversions, mathematical, 124. 

Divination, Oriental, 99. 

Dixon, Edward, 145. 

Dogmas, and error, 26-27; Christian 
spirit opposed to, 51; obsolete, 108; 
review on, 116; of Christian res- 
urrection, x68; of the Trinity, 182. 

Dogs, crucifixion of, in ancient Rome, 

113- 
Dolls, Japanese festival of, xx6. 
Doomsday, xi8. 
Double symbol, zz6; personality, 1x7; 

unity, 150. 
Dreams, 1x7. 
Droeshout, 173. 
Druids, 178. 
Dualism, 150, XS9. 
Du Bois-Reymond, 49. 
Duty, 27. 

Eagle, the double, iz6. 

Easter, 1x7. 

Eberlein, Gustav H., 12S, 

Eckhart, X02. 

Economy of thought, 4, $. 

Editorial articles, summaries of, 93* 
187. 

Edmunds, A. J., lox. 

Education, and guidance, 47; and 
mathematics, 145; music in, 152. 

EDWARD'S DREAM, 66. 

Efflorescence, the highest mental, 13. 

Ego, the, nature of, 43; summaries 
of articles on, 117; Des Cartes and, 
135. 

Egypt, conceptions of death and im- 
mortality in ancient, 1x3, 1x8, 136; 
stone worship in, 170. 



Eine Kleine Hutte, X40. 

Election, the McKinley, xx8. 

Electricity, animal, xi8. 

Element, in philosophy, the myste- 
rious, 35; in Christianity, the pagan, 
109, 1S7' 

Elgin, Lord, 93. 

Emblems, prehistoric, 124. 

Emotionalism, Nietsche's, 13s. 

Energy, the objectivity of events, 5; 
mind not a storage of, 148; spelled 
with capital E, 171; is the soul an, 
X7S. 

England, liberty-loving, 137. 

Enlightenment, religion of, 102, 

Enmeduranki, x86. 

Entheism, 54. 

Epics, solar, 60; of China, 80; Baby- 
lonian, X26. 

Epictetus, Z08. 

Epigenesis, 49. 

Epigrams of Goethe, 129. 

Equipment, Spanish war, 176, 

Equivocation in dogma, 52. 

Eros, 118. 

EROS AND PSYCHE, 89. 

Error, 26; of Kant, 33; vainglorious 
prophets of, 46; in freethought, 
124; consoled, X12; of identifying 
soul and ego, 1x7. 

Eschatology of Christian art, xz8. 

Esperanto, 118. 

Essence of the Dharma, 119. 

Eternity, a hymn on, X19; and in- 
finitude, 136. 

Ethics, basis of, 45; Chinese maxims 
and, 85; summaries of articles on, 
119-120; and formal thought, X24; 
of Kant, H. Spencer on the, 140; 
science and, 171. 



196 



INDEX 



Ethical Culture, Chicago Society of, 
44* 54; Confucian ideals of, 138. 

ETHICAL PROBLEM, THE, 44. 

Ethnology of the word God, 54. 

Ethos Anthropoi Daimon, motto of 
the Open Court, 120. 

Eucharists, pre-Christian, 124. 

Eucken, Prof. Rudolph, 102. 

Euclid, 43. 

European opinions on religious par- 
liaments, 167. 

Eusebius, 102. 

EVANGELIUM BUDDHAS, DAS, 
69. 

Events, to-day's, 120. 

Evil, idea of, in antiquity, $71 »n 
early Christianity, 120; for evil, 
render not, 168. 

Evolution, of scientific thought, xo; 
of truth, 20-21; and moral triumph, 
49; summaries of articles on, 120- 

X2I. 

Exile of the Jews, 180. 

Existence, two aspects of, 38. 

Expansion, summaries of articles on, 
121. 

Experience, principles derived from, 
31; the Primer of Philosophy, 121; 
and objective existence, 150; mo- 
tion, 176. 

Explanation, by principle, 19. 

Exposition, St. Louis, 94. 

Expository Times, 163. 

Extension, Religious Parliament, 167. 

Fables, Chinese, xo6, X2X. 

Facts, established by science, x6; a 

religion based on, X65. 
Factors of scientific truth, 3. 



Faculty, intellectual, 148. 
Fagging in mediaeval universities, 13a. 
Fairy tale, sweetest Greek, 90; ele- 
ment in the Bible, X2i; summaries 

of articles on, 12 x- 122; in religion, 

x66. 
Faith, and doubts 122; Goethe's, 129; 

Haeckel's, X3X. 
Fallacies^ of the peacemakers, 159; 

of the agnostic position, 172. 
False estimate of capabilities, 182. 
Fate, distinguished from necessity, 

154; of Zeus, 163. 
Father Hennepin, 9X. 
Fatherland, the, special articles on 

Germany, 122. 
Faust, Goethe's, significance of, 129. 
Fawcett, Edward Douglass, X69. 
Fechner, Gustav Theodor, 44, X23, 

175. 
Feeling, a product of organization, 

x8ff; sxmunaries of articles on the 

origin and nature of, 123. 
Festivals, Chinese, 86; of dolls in 

Japan, 116; of the Resurrection, 

169. 
Field, H. M., 94. 
Filial piety in China, 123. 
Filipino question, 123. 
First steps, children's, 47, 123. 
Flag, hymn, X23; the American, X2S. 
Folklore, the devil in mediaeval, 58; 

in poetry, 122; Sampieiro, a tale 

of Chinese, X7x. 
Food, sacramental, 123. 
Force, and causation, 124; in rela* 

tion to gravity, 145. 
Forerunner, the, of sensation, 19. 
Form, and the formal sciences, 3, 41; 
and philosophy, 5; and inmiortality, 



INDEX 



197 



21; and formal thought, ig, 30, 

124. 
Forms-in-themselves, 1 1. 
Formula, a generalized fact, a, 4; a 

Buddhist, i8x. 
FOUNDATIONS OF MATHEMAT- 
ICS, THE, 40. 
Foundations of mathematics, philo- 

sophical, X45. 
Fourth gospel, the, 129. 
Frank, Dr. Elarl, 13a. 
Franklin squares, 124, 145. 
Frauds, in spiritualism, 146; as the 

Christ, X06. 
Freedom, of will, 12; Immortality, 

God, and, 127. 
Freethought, and the Bible, xoo; he- 
roes of,, X24. 
Friar, the, a song, 124. 
French, Daniel C, 1x5. 
FRIEDRICH SCHILLER, 67. 
Friendship, international, 137. 
Fulfilment, science comes as the, 124. 
FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEMS, 29. 
Future, the, philosophy of, 8; of 

Christianity, 64; religion oi, z66, 

X67. 
Fylfot, 124. 
Galilei, Galileo, 125. 
Gandhi, R., Z07. 
Garbe, Prof. Richard, 99. 
Gauss, 4Z. 
Gentile, the, in early Christianity, 

139. 
German, classical period, 6; topics, 

sunmiaries of articles on, 125-126; 

mjrstics quoted, X53. 
Gerhard, a Swedenborgian, 126. 
Geolui^ of founders of Chinese dvll- 



ization, 77; of death, 1x4; and 
playful instruction, X25. 

Geoffrey, C. P., pseudonym of Dr. 
Cams, 180. 

Geometry, philosophy of, 40; founda- 
tions of, 125. 

Geomancer's compass, 79. 

Ghosts, summaries of articles on, 126. 

Ghost crab, th^ 99. 

Gifts, Christnuis, 109. 

Gilgamesh and Eabaxil, 126. 

Gill, W. J., ISO. 

Gissac, F. de, 126, 

Gladstone, Hon. W. E., 94. 

Gnosticism, pre-Christian, 64, 108, 
126, 127, 139. 

Gobineau, Count, 127. 

God, idea of, purified, 28; soul of the 
universe, 40; incarnate in man, 49; 
of Buddhism, 76; animal concep- 
tion of, 97; oriental personal, 98; 
wpeaks In experience, xoo; sum- 
xnaries of articles on, 127S; as om- 
nipresent order, zsx. 

GOD, AN ENQUIRY INTO THE 
NATURE OF MAN'S HIGHEST 
IDEALS AND A SOLUTION OF 
THE PROBLEM FROM THE 
STANDPOINT OF SCIENCE, 55- 

God-ideal, Kampmeier's, x8o. 

Cod of Iron, the, a hymn, 128. 

Gods of Japan, jolly, 138. 

GODWARD, 88. 

Codward, a hjrmn, 128. 

Goethe, 6, 58, 68, X09, X50, 172; 
summaries of articles on, X28-X29. 

GOETHE AND SCHILLER'S XEN- 
IONS, 66-67. 

Golgotha, 1x3. 

Golden age and the Chiist-ldetl, toy. 



198 



INDEX 



Good and evil, problem of, 129. 

Gospel of cheer, 181. 

GOSPEL OF BUDDHA, 69. 

Goq>eIs, historical nucleus of Chris* 
tian, 108; Christian and Buddhist, 
129; cause of their success, X39* 

Grasshopper, 130. 

Grassmann, Prof., 41. 

Gravitation, Le Sage's theory of, 145. 

Greed, Chinese dunning devil of, xi7- 

Greek, mysteries, religion, mythology 
and art, 130; sculptors in India, 77. 

Greeley, Frederick, xx8. 

Grief at unbelief, 130. 

Gros, M. Johannes, 164. 

Gunkel vs. Delitsch, 131. 

Gunning, Prof. W. D., 131. 

Gutzlaff, Charles, 102, 

Haas, Rev. Hans, 109. 

Hades, 1x4, xi8. 

Haeckel, Ernst, Prof., 127, 131, 250. 

Hallucinations, 38, 1x7. 

Hamlet, the Hindu, X31. 

Hammurabi, 131. 

Harmony of the spheres, X3J. 

Harnack, Adolf, X32, 166. 

Harper, Pres. William R., 133. 

Hard times, 13 x, X46. 

Hastings, Rev. James^ 56. 

Haweis, Rev., x68. 

Haziness, 33, xxo. 

Hazing, X3a. 

Healing, by conjuration, in ancient 

Babylon, 132. 
Hebert, Marcel, X63. 
Hedonism, 92, 95, X33, X40, lyd. 
Hegeler, Edward C, x6i. 
Hcgeler, Gisela, X33. 
Hegeler, Mrs. E. C, 133. 



Henism, X33, X49. 

Heracles, 60. 

Heraclitus, 120, X33. 

Herder, Prof., 6. 

Heredity, spiritual, 43, 133. 

Heresy, X32, 152, 167. 

Hermes, 179. 

Hering, Prof. Ewald, x8, 146. 

Herodotus, xos. 

Heroes of freethought, 124. 

Hewavitame, X33. 

Hieroglyphs, X70. 

Higher criticism, x68, x8o. 

Hinduism and Theosophy, X34. 

Historical movements, 26. 

HISTORY OF THE DEVIL, THE, 

57. 
Hobbes, 47. 
Hobgoblin, 149. 
Hoffding, Prof. H., 44, 45. 
Hokusai, 134. 
Holland, F. M., 44, 45. 
Holmes, C. J., X34. 
Holtzmann, Heinrich Julius, X34. 
Holy, edict, Chinese, 134; fire, 187; 

Ghost, 174, 182; office, the, X25. 
Holyoake, G. L., X34. 
Homeopathy, 143. 
HOMILIES OF SCIENCE. 50. 
Hopkins, Prof. E. Washburn, xo2. 
Horns and hoofs, 58. 
Horses, strike of the, X78. 
Human soul, the, X75. 
Humanity, higher, X33. 
Hume, XX. 
Humor, and philosophy, 66; Chinese, 

86. 
Humorist, a, x6x. 
Hunger after righteousness, 134. 
Huxley, xx9, X34. 



INDEX 



199 



Hymns, 88, zoz, 123, 136, 166. 

Hypnotism, 38, 134. 

Hypocritical allegiance to dogma, no. 

Iconoclasm, 13$. 

Icons, 170. 

IDEA OF GOD, THE, 54- 

Idea- worshipper, 135. 

Idealism, Berkeley's, 99; in modem 
philosophy, 135. 

Ideas, living, 19; preservation of, 31; 
good and evil as religious, 139; 
sammaries of articles on, 134. 

Identity, of self, 117; in change, 135. 

Idol, the Bible an, xoo. 

Idolatry of dogmatists, 135. 

Ignis fatuus of circle aquarers, tSa, 

Ignorance, 94, 135. 

Igorot, the, 135. 

Illiberal, the, 143. 

Illusions, of Hedonism, 45; of re- 
ligion, 1x0. 

Ilo, 1x8. 

Image worship, 135. 

Immanent, God Is, 151. 

Immorality, philosophic principle of, 
X35; Nietsche on, 155. 

Immortality, instinctive, 21; racial, 
37; not fiction, 43; Buddhist, 75; 
Goethe on, X39; summaries of arti- 
cles on, 136; science and, 17a. 

Immutable, 168. 

Impetus, the Individual an, 136. 

Imperialism in America, lai. 

"In Vain," 181. 

Independence, creed of science, 56. 

Indonesian legend, 136. 

Indians, N. A., iia. 

Individualism, 46. 

Infinite, the, 136. 



Ingersoll, R. G«, 93. 
Injunction, Plato's, 41. 
Inquisition, the, 57, 136. 
Inscription, Mesha's, 146; Siloam, 

174. 

Instruction, ethical, 119-iao; playful, 
X37. 

Intellectual surd, the, 35. 

Intelligence, consciousness and, 39. 

International, stearing 96; friend- 
ship, 125, Z37; pasigraphy, 158. 

Intrinsic necessity, 13. 

Investigation, scientific, and common 
sense, 2, 4. 

Ireland, Archbishop* 95, 170. 

Irreligion, 156. 

"Is," the, and the "ought," 137. 

islam, 151. 

Ishtar's Descent to Hell, 98, 122, 

"it thinks," 137. 

James, Prof. William, 137, 148, z6i, 
162. 

Janes, Dr. Lewis G., 94. 

Japan, art, 97; dynasty wart, 99; 
Buddhism, 102; summaries of arti- 
cles on, 138-139. 

Java, legend of Jesus, 136. 

Jenkins, Richard, 138. 

Jesuits, the, 169. 

Jesus Christ, the pleroma, 63; pagan- 
Christian, Z09; cross of, 1 13; per- 
sonality, X39. 

Jew, the, in early Christianity, 109; 
dispersion of, 139, 180. 

Jodl, Prof. Friedrich, 36, 44, 45, 139, 
166. 

Johnston, Charles, 139. 

Joliet, visit to, 96, 139. 

Joseph, story of, ijj. 



200 



INDEX 



Joshua, 178. 
Jubilate, 239. 
Judaism, 64. 
Judson, H. D., 140. 
Julian, the ^ostate, 108. 
Justice, criticism of Spencer's book 
on, Z40. 

Elabala, 126, 

Kamakura, xox, 173. 

Kamo No Chomei, 140. 

Kan Ying P'ien, 140. 

K'ang-hi, 134. 

Kant, Immanuel, and Hume, li; 

prophet of form, 22; his philosophy, 

32; ethics, 33; and Spencer, lao, 

176; duty, 133; evolution, 140; 

summaries of articles on, 140; his 

terms confused, 176. 
KANT AND SPENCER, 33. 
KANT'S PROLEGOMENA TO ANY 

FUTURE METAPHYSIC, 3a. 
KARMA. 73. 
Karma, Tolstoy's translation of, 74; 

law' of, and monism, X03; in song 

and story, 140. 
Kelvin, Lord, William Thomson, 140. 
Key to world problems, 24, 169. 
Kheiralla, L G., 98. 
King Death, 1x4. 
Kipling, Rudyard, 76. 
Kirchoff, Prof. G. R., X04, 140. 
Knowledge, 14 x. 
Koerner, Gustav, 141. 
Kopetsky, Olga, 92, 
Kudurrus, Babylonian, 178. 

Labanxm, zo6. 

Labor, curse or dignity of? Z4z; 
the Pope's encyclical on, i6a. 



Language, international, 237, 257. 

Lane, Charles Alva, 87. 

Lanman, Prof., xox. 

Lao-Tze, a great moral teacher, 8x; 

maxims of, 132; summaries of arti* 

clea on, 242. 
LAO-TZE'S TAO-TEH KING, 82. 
Larldn, 274. 
Latin literature, 87. 
Laubadi^re, 205. 
Laufer, 224. 
Laughing, 242. 
Laws, of nature, 12; of ethks, 2x9; 

moral, 242. 
Lay church, a, 242, 24a. 
Leaders, Russo*Japanete, 238. 
Legend, religious, 89; Indian, 92; 

deluge, xis; resurrection, 228, 268; 

homeopathy, 243; Indonesian, 236; 

creation, 256. 
Leo XIII, Pope, 263. 
Leasing, 5. 
Lethargy, 24a. 

Letter, and spirit, 27; Greek r* ^5^ 
Lewins, Dr. R., 44, 45> i37* 
Liars, 243. 

Liberal religion and thought, 243. 
Liberty and nationalism, 24a. 
Lie, the usefal, x6a. 
Life After Death, Fechner's, 44* 
Life, the struggle for, 242, 175. 
Lincoln, Abraham, centennial, 123. 
Literary discussion, ethica of, 243. 
Literature, Chinese, 85, 206; "storm 

and stress," 209. 
Littre'Sk 243, 26a. 
Living the truth, 243. 
Llano, Antonio, 220. 
Lobatschevsky, 42, 278. 
Logic, nothingness and lero in* iM. 



INDEX 



201 



"Logos, the," J4, 148. 

London, Partees of, 148. 

Lonely thinker, a, iSa. 

Loof-Haeckel, 131. 

Looking forward, 143. 

Lord's prayer, 143; Lord's sacra- 

ment, 126. 
Lore, Christian legend, 61. 
Lost Manutcript, Freytag's norel, 

143. 
Lot's wife, I as, 178. 
Louisiana Purchase Exposition, at St 

Louis, III. 
Love, and immortality, 1x5; Deme- 

ter's glorification of, 132; of truth, 

religion and, 167. 
Low, Canon George, 127, 143, x68. 
Loyson, Pire Hyacinthe, 128. 

Mach, Prof. Ernst, 5, 36, 144. 

Maddock, John, 44, 45. 

Magi. 187. 

Magic, Evans' Old and New, 144; 

squares, mathematica], 144. 
Maha-Bodhi, society, xox; Journal, 

X03. 
Mahayana, 144. 

Maitreya, Ananda, 96, 103, 144. 
Malay, 1x9. 
Man, a worker and a thinker, 25; 

oneness of nature and, 144. 
Manichaeism, 149. 
Manila, 137. 

Manitou, Yahveh and, 185. 
Marcus Aurelius, 108. 
Marduk, xaa. 
Mariolotry, 183. 
Marlowe, 1x6. 
Marriage, 144. 
Martin, Rev. Alfred, 167. 



Master of Akka, the, 98. 

Materialism, errors of, 145; monism 
and, 150. 

Mathematics, philosophical basis of, 
41; God of, 42; diversions and 
magic squares, 124, X44, 145; the 
old and the new, 156. 

Matriarchy, 122. 

Matter, an empty word, 5; and grav- 
ity. 145. 

Maxims, Chinese, 85. 

Mayors of Illinois, two, 120. 

Mazdaism, 145, 149, x86. 

Mazzebas, 178. 

McCrie, George M., 168, 172, 175. 

McGregor, Allan, X03. 

McKinley, William, 144. 

McVeagh, Franklin, xi8. 

Middle ages, spirit of, 9. 

Milieu, religious, 89. 

Mill, John Stuart, 154. 

Mills, Prof. L. H., 148. 

Mind, noetic operations of, 25; power 
of, and Christian Science, X07; is 
God a, 127; reading in the nursery, 
X49; summaries of articles on, 148- 
149. 

Minot, Prof. Charles S., xiz, 149. 

Minton, Rev. H. C, 128. 

Miracles and witchcraft, 185. 

Missions, Christian, Z07, 109. 

Missionaries, Christian and pagan, y2, 

149- 
Mithras, 108, X45, 149. 
Mivart, Prof. George, zaz. 
Mecca, X03. 

Mechanical philosophy, 150, 154. 
Medals, 173. 
Medhurst, 146. 
Medium, an cz-, 146. 



202 



INDEX 



Medici, Dr. Charles de, 146, i8a. 

Medieval Christian literature, 102, 

Medulla Oblongata, 177. 

Meliorism, 9« 

Memory, definition, z6; nerve activ- 
ity, x8; soul-builder, 19; organized 
substance, 146; mechanical, the 
phonograph, i6x; Ribot, 169. 

Memorial customs in Japan, 138. 

Mental, biochemical, phenomena, 164. 

Mene tekel, 146. 

Mer-monkey, the, 146. 

Mesha, 146. 

Message, of Buddhism to Christianity, 
103; of Monism to the world, 151. 

Metabolism, x6, ax. 

Metaphysical, questions, lo-xi, 34; 
"x" in cognition, xio, X47. 

Metaphysics, the surd of, 35; purged, 
36; Buddhist, 95; a vicious habit 
in, Z47; Von Gizydd's statement, 
X65. 

Metchnikoff, Elie, 147. 

Method, 2, 3. 

Methology, 7. 

Mexico, X48. 

Moderation, Chinese sermon on, 1 11. 

Modesty of agnosticism, 94. 

Moltke, Trostgedanken, 149* 

Monastic orders, X69. 

Money, clean, 109. 

Monier-Williams, Sir Monier, xoa. 

MONISM AND MELIORISM, 29. 

Monism, a unitary world-conception, 
4* 93; criticized by Minot, xxx; its 
definition of feeling, 123; Goethe's, 
X29; Haeckel's, 131; hedonism and, 
X33; message of, 147; actualization 
of, 149; summaries of articles on, 
I49«z5z; no dilenmia in, X50. 



Monitt, the, 39» 44, 65, 15X. 

Monk, China's dunning devil, 1x7. 

Monogamy and free love, 50, 151. 

Monotheism, 145, 180. 

Monroe Doctrine, 151. 

Montgomery, Dr. James Alan, 171. 

Monuments, to death, 1x5; prayers 
on, X36; Moabite stone, 146; sum- 
maries of articles on, 151. 

Moore, George, disdple of Nietsche, 

Morality, the letter and the spirit, 
271 pursuit of pleasure not, 45; 
Chinese, 80; test of, 9a; Goldwin 
Smith, 151; moral ought, 151; and 
nature, 154; Von GizycU's state- 
ment, X65. 

Moribund, Buddhism not, loa. 

Morning Glory, the, 151. 

Mote, the, and the beam, 151. 

Mother, a, 48. 

Motion, and feeling, 23; in infinite 
directions, 42; nothing in physical 
life but, Z5s; motion-e3q>aienoe8, 
Z76. 

Motto, Dr. Cams', 30; the Open 
Court, 120. 

Motor-organisms, i6. 

Moxom, Dr., 129. 

Mozart, 6. 

Murato Tanryo, 141. 

Music, summaries of articles on, 152. 

Must, the, 157. ^ 

Mud-puddles and mysticism, 33. 

Mueller, Prof. F. Max, 36, zzi, 15s, 
Z70, x86 (see also MuUer). 

Muhamnuid, 151. 

Multiplication table, x68. 

Multitude, the, 26, 

Munsterberg, Prof. Hugo, 135. 



INDEX 



203 



Myazda, xa6. 

Mystery, of mysteiiet, the, 56; pUys, 
Greek, 130. 

Mysterious beetle, the, iS2, 

Mystic, traditions in religion, 6x; 
marriage in art, 61-63; number r, 
156. 

Mysticism, and pragmatism, 8; at- 
tractive, 2$; and the a priori, 41; 
sentiment in, 65; dangerous, 152. 

Mystifications, unexplained, 153. 

Myth, and history, 60, 134; in Egypt 
and Chaldea, xai. 

Mythology of Buddhism, xoj. 

NameSk dajrs and deities, 138; Chris- 
tian, Christianity, 153. 

Napoleon, 153, 173. 

Nara Buddha, xoz. 

Naram-sin's stele, ZS3. 

Nativity, the, 153. 

Nature, all, living, 21; Goethe's phil- 
osophy of, 139; oneness of man 
and, Z44; of mind, 148; alive? 154. 

NATURE OF THE STATE, THE, 
46. 

Natural, laws and causes, Z04; science 
and ethics, 119; selection of soul- 
atoms, Z43. 

Naval Academy, U. S., Z54. 

Nazarenes, 89. 

Neanderthal man, the, 49. 

Necessity, basis and scope of, Z54; 
C. S. Peirce on, Z59. 

Need of philosophy, x6z. 

Nelson, Murry, zx8. 

Nero, Z07. 

Nervous system, the, purpose, z6; 
consciousness, 38; vertebrates, Z54; 
articulates, zss. 



Nescience, agnosticism, z; philosophy 

of, 34; God of, 55* 
Nestorious, Z55. 

New Testament, Eucharist, 124; Ger- 
man critic of, Z34; authorities, X39. 

New wine, Z55. 

New Year's Eve, meditations, 99; his- 
tory of, 155. 

Newman, Cardinal, 57. 

Newport, David, 93* 

Newton, Isaac, 172, 

Newspaper, the ideal, Z55. 

Ney, Elisabet, X55, 17X. 

Niagara Falls, legend of, 9z. 

Nietsche, Frederick, X35, Z55. 

Nik6 Apteros, 93. 

Nile, the, Z58. 

Nilsson, X44. 

Nineteenth Century, club. New York, 
Z07; demonology in the, ZZ5. 

NIRVANA, 75. 

Nirvana, and Karma, Z40; Buddhist 
psychology, Z55. 

Nobel, Dr. Alfred B., Z55. 

Noetic, 35. 

Noir6, Ludwig, Z49. 

Nomenclature, 33, x6o. 

Nomotheism, 56, Z38. 

Norms, 34. 

North China Herald, press notice, 83. 

Norway, zss. 

Nothingness, in logic, z86. 

Notions, Chinese, 77. 

Notovitch, Nicolas, Z37. 

Number «• in Christian prophecy, 
Z56. 

Nun, a pagan, Z58. 

Nursery, the, mind-reading in, 149- 

Obelisks, Z78. 

Obituary, ^Ihelm Busch, Z03; Eel: 



204 



INDEX 



ley B. Coxe, 112; F. de Gissac, 
127; W. D. Gunning, 131; Mrs. E. 
C. Hegeler, 133; Gisela Hegeler, 
133; Lord Kelvin, 140, i8z; Gut- 
tav Koemer, 141; William B. Mc- 
Kinley, 144; Elisabet Ney, 155; 
Otto Pfleiderer, 160; Major Powell, 
162; George John Romanes, 170. 

Objective, the, domain of, 14; cri- 
terion of ethics, 112. 

Obscene, phallic worship not, 105. 

Occultism, Chinese, 79, 106; in math- 
ematics, 145; and the meaning of 
quality, 164. 

Old philosophies, i. 

Old Testament, 98, 122, 149. 

Old and new, 145, 156. 

Olympian brides, 156. 

Omar Khayyam, 172. 

Omnipresences, laws of nature, 24; 
order as God, 151. 

Omniscient, if we were, za. 

One-eyed persons, spacial sense of, 
176. 

Oneiros and Harpaz, 156. 

Oneness, of man and nature, 144; of 
the phenomenal and the noumenal, 
x6o. 

Ontology, 7f xs6. 

Open Court, The, 29, 30, 56, 95, 99> 
107, 112, 121, 127, 131, 166, 177, 
180. 

Open-door policy, 105. 

Order, God as omnipresent, 151. 

Organization and feeling, 38. 

Orient the, world religions of, 98. 
173; art in, 177. 

Origin, of Christianity, X09; of mind, 
149; of thought- forms, i8z. 

Originality, itch for, 30. 



Ornament, evolution of, 121, 157. 
Orphic, songs, 130; mosaic, 157. 
Orthodoxy, the new, 52, 99; the em- 
peror's, 118. 
Osiris, III. 
Ostwald, Prof., 157. 
"Ought," the, and the "is," 137. X57. 
OUR CHILDREN, 47. 
OUR NEED OF PHILOSOPHY, 31. 

Paganism, anticipated Christianity, 
64; summaries of articles on, 157- 
158; of northern Europe^ 166. 

Pain, 39, 158, 161. 

Painting, 27, 

P'a-lek, 158. 

Pali, xox. 

Pan-biotism, -logism, -pqrchism, 158. 

Pan-mala]ra, 160. 

Parable, 158. 

Parallelism, in psychology, 14; in 
reality, 1$. 

Parallels, pre-Christian, 126, 143. 

Parenthood, X58. 

Parliament of religions, 31* 69, 100. 

Parousia, 130. 

Parsees, 148. 

Parthenon, the, 93. 

Particularity, 41. 

Parties in philosophy, politics and 
religion, i6o-x6i. 

Pasigraphy, 137, 158. 

Pasteur, 147. 

Pathology, of Christ pretenders, 106; 
of the egoless man, 117. 

Patriotism, 158. 

Paul of Tarsus, 89. 

Pfeace, summaries of artidet on, 15S- 

159. 
Pearson, Prof., 159. 



INDEX 



20S 



Pechvogel, John, 159. 

Peirce, Charles S., 154, 159. 

Peking, 78. 

Pelasgians, the, 93. 

Peripheral soul-life, 175. 

Persian dualism, 159. 

Fbrsonal equation, and pragmatists, 

8; philosophy of the, i6x, 163. 
Personality, double, 38; human, 43; 

continues after death, 123; of God, 

»«7. 159; of Jesus, 139. 
Persons, natural and artificial, z6o. 
Pessimist, Chandra, the, 104; Schop- 
enhauer, 171. 
Petrarch, 160. 
Phagocytes, 148. 
Phallic worship, 105. 
Phenomena and noumena, 160. 
Pfleiderer, Dr. Otto, 160. 
Philippines, the, 95, 105, 135, x6o. 
Philo, 24. 

Philology, and monism, 149; and ar- 
tificial languages, 160. 
PHILOSOPHICAL PAMPHLETS 

THREE, 31, 183. 
Philosophy, objective, i; scope of, 7; 

of form and the nature of God, ix; 

of Buddhism, zoa; Chinese, 106; 

in Japan, 138; mechanical, 154; 

parties, 160; summaries of articles 

on, 161-162. 
Philosopher, a, not one-sided, 2$. 
PHILOSOPHY AS A SCIENCE, i 

et. seq. 
PHILOSOPHY OF THE TOOL, 31. 
PHILOSOPHER'S MARTYRDOM. 

THE, 92. 
Philosophische Monaishgfte, 87. 
Phoenicians, 178. 
Phonograph, i6x. 



Phosphorescence, zx8. 

Pictures, Buddha, zox; Nirvana, X55. 

Piety, filial, 105. 

Pithecanthropus, the, z6z. 

Plants, souMife in animals and, 175. 

Plato, 34, 41, 132, i6z. 

Pleasure, 39* 158, z6z. 

Pleiades, the, X73. 

PLEROMA, THE, 63. 

Pleroma, the, a fulfilment, 63; Chris- 
tianity as, X08. 

Pneuma, 183. 

i>oems, and the world conception, 27; 
Assyrian, 97; philosophical, 113* ^29. 

Poetry, Buddhist, 68, 103, 125; Chi- 
nese, 8s; philosophical, 87. 

Politics, McKinley-Bryan, x6x; par- 
ties in philosophy, x6o. 

Polychrome Bible, the, x6i. 

Polytheism, Goethe's, X29. 

Pompeian fresco, a, 122, 

Pons, the, 104. 

Pope, the, Leo XHI, i6a; Siactus IV, 

X74. 
PORTFOLIO OF BUDDHIST ART, 

HISTORICAL AND MODERN, 

73. 
Positivism, Comtc's, 93; Berkeley's, 

99; the new, x2o; Littre's, X43; 

from metaphysicism to, 147; vs. 

gnosticism, 162. 
Possible, is religious truth? 167. 
Postal service, 162, X79. 
Potentialities, of form, 24; of things, 

162. 
Potiphar's wife, X22. 
Potonii, Dr. H., i8x. 
Powell, Major, X62. 
Pragmatism, 8, X37, 162, 163. 



206 



INDEX 



Pragmatology, and the science of con- 
duct, 8. 

Prajnaparamita, 163. 

Prang, Louis, 163. 

Prayer, the Lord's, 143. 

Pre-Christian Christians, 108. 

Pre-existencc, 163. 

Preliminary statement, a, 39. 

Pre-scientific, soul-conceptiont, 175. 

Presbyterian, a, 163. 

Present age, 37. 

Press, the scientific, zi6. 

Pretenders, Christ, 106. 

Priestly code, 186. 

PRIMER OF PHILOSOPHY, 31. 

PrimitiTe, religion, 90; man, 163. 

Priority, society or the individual, 
46; the chicken or the egg, 105. 

Principle, the, of the soul, 19; of the 
formal sciences, 31; of radical con- 
servatism, 26; of cosmic order, 55; 
of ethics, X19; of monism, 149. 

Pro Domo, 163. 

Problems, wrongly formulated, 10; 
central, of religions, 43; of evil, 
57-58; Chinese, 105; each solution 
creates new, 135; one principle for 
all, in monism, 150; social, 174; of 
three-dimensional space, 170; of 
modem theology, x8o. 

Professors in German universities, 
125. 

Profundity, apparent, 33. 

Progress, test of, 30, 179; religion of, 
163, 166; of religion, 167; side- 
switches of, 183. 

Prometheus and Zeus, 163. 

Propagation, sex, 37. 

Prophecy, Virgil's fourth eclogue, 
107; number r in Christian, 156. 



Prophets, Goethe, 6; Kant, 22; 
Schiller, 6, 36, 171. 

Prosody, classical, 67. 

Proq>ect of religion, 167; retrospect 
and, 169. 

Prosperity, 178. 

Proto-Semitism, 163. 

Prototypes, pagan and Christian, 60, 
61, 114. 

Prudentius, Z14, 154. 

Prussia, liberty of conscience in, 143. 

Psyche, the, 17-18. 

Psychical phenomena, 13, 16, 37. 

Psychical Research, Society of, 175. 

Psychologists and the ego, 1x7. 

Psychology, importance of, 12 ff; ex- 
perimental, 37, 40; Buddhist, 74- 
75* 100; summaries of articles on, 
164; Ribot's, 169. 

Psycho-physics, questions of, 144, 164. 

Public schools, ethics in, 1x9. 

Pulpit, the. Christian, 50; agnosticism 
in, 94; a composer in, xxo. 

Pure forms in mathematics, X45. 

Puritan spirit, 6x. 

Purpose, author's main, xo; unity of, 
38. 

Quality, 6-7, X64. 
Quatrain, Goethe's, 58. 
Queen of Sheba, X64. 
Quintessence, mental, 43. 

Rabbi Hirsch, 40. 

Railroad strike, a, 164. 

Rainbows, 164. 

Rationalism in the nursery, X64. 

Ratzel, X64. 

Reaction against materialism, 45. 

Reality, two aspects of, 14; of the 



■MtMUKiiU 



liMAMH 



INDEX 



207 



devil, 59; mind and, 165. 

Realization of truth, 20, 

Reason, zi, 165. 

Reason and Virtue, Canon of, 141. 

Reasons are simultaneous, la. 

Recognition, process of, 19. 

Recollection, loss of, 117. 

Recondite sources, 80. 

Records, 174. 

Reeves, 127. 

Reflex motions, 165. 

Reformation, the, S7, X37» 184* 

Reliability of science, z. 

Religion, its rival, 35; comparative 
study of, 26; of science and Bud- 
dhism, Z02, Z03; in China, zos; in 
art, 114; in fairy tales, 122; great- 
est non-Christian, Z65; and monism, 
Z49, 150; summaries of articles on, 
X65-Z66; rational inquiry into, z66. 

RELIGION OF SCIENCE, THE, 53. 

Religious parliament, 52, 165, Z67. 

Religious problems, 3z; and psychol- 
ogy, 39; the grandest of all, 44, 
Z67. 

Representation, by feelings, 39; of 
death, 115; without taxation, z68. 

Resignation, 166. 

Response and retribution, Z40. 

Responsibility and free will, 39, za4; 
of God, X28. 

Retrospect and proq>ect, Z69. 

Resurgam, x68. 

Resurrection, Egjrptian terminology 
for, XIX ; summaries of articles on, 
X68-X69; a hyperhistorical fact, x68. 

Revelations, of an ex-medium, Z46; 
New Testament xii, xix, Z57; in 

Reviews of Soul of Man, 17 S» 

Revival of Buddhism, Z02. 



Revolution, the right to, 46, Z69; the 

state based upon, Z77. 

science, Z69; of science, religious, 

X7z. 
Rhymes* 65. 
Ribot, Th., Z46, 169* 
Riches, mental, Z9. 
Riddle of the universe, 10, Z69. 
Riemann, 4Z. 

Riggtf James, D. D., z68. 
Righteousness, hunger after, 50, 134. 
RISE OF MAN, THE, 49. 
Rituals, cruel, 9z; change, Z3S. 
Rival of Christianity, 149* 
Robertson, John M., Z57. 
Roman church, St Catharine, 6z; 

Jesuit, Z69. 
Romance of childhood, 95. 
Romanes, Prof. George John, 52, Z2i, 

170. 
Rome and scienoe, 170. 
Rosary, 143. 
Rosetta Stone, Z70. 
Rosmini, 170. 
Ross, W. Stewart^ 13a. 
Rousseau, 47. 
Royer, Clemence, zao. 
Russell, F. C, Z50, 178. 
Russian Icons, Z70. 
Russo-Japanese war, Z78. 

SACRED TUNES FOR THE CON- 

SECRATION OF LIFE, 88. 
Saints, Augustine, Z02; Anselm, xo8; 

Catharine, 6z; Joseph, X74; Paul, 

Z08, 118, X39, Z75. 
Salter, William M., 44-4St <<8. 
Salutatory, summary of Open Court 

prindplet, Z70. 
Samaritans, Z7z. 



208 



INDEX 



Sameness, principle of, 19. 

Sampietro's Mother, 75* X7X« 

Sampson, 59, 171. 

Sanskrit, 121, 

Santa Clans, 47, 171. 

Sarcophagi, 90. 

Satire, Goethe's, 36; on agnosticism, 
92. 

Saviour, equivalents for the word, 
107; pre-Christian, 157; birth of a, 
181. 

Scavengers, body, 147, 148. 

Science, present age of, a ff; of 
sdttnces, 35; God of, 55; immor- 
tality and, 136; religion of, 166; 
summaries of articles on, 171-173. 

SCIENCE A RELIGIOUS REVE- 
LATION, 31. 

Scheffler, Johannes, 65, 171* (An- 
gelus Silesius.) 

Schiller, Friedrich, a prophet, 6, $6; 
philosopher, 67; verses, 137; drama- 
tist, 171. 

Schilling, George, 118. 

Schleiermacher, 165. 

Schneider, Sasha, i6s« 

Scholaromania, 171. 

Schopenhauer, 171. 

School, 171. 

Scott, F. H., 1x8. 

Scotus Erigena, loa. 

Script, Chinese, xo6. 

Scriptures, of Buddhism, 69, 103; 
canonical, 89, 156. 

Sculpture, Greek-Buddhist, 130, 184. 

Seal of Christ, 173. 

Seances, 146. 

Secret societies, Jesuit, Musanlman, 
170. 

Secularism, 134, 172. 



Self, Max Mueller's theory of, 153; 
meaning of, 173. 

Self-disdpline and Christian Science, 
X07. 

Self-resignation, Christian and Bud- 
dhist, 173. 

Semites, 93. 

Seneca, 108. 

Senile decadence, 147. 

Sensation, Mach's terminology, 144; 
and memory, 146, 173. 

Senses, the psychical and physiologi- 
cal, 17; limitation of, 173. 

Sentiency, phenomena of, 14; how 
developed, 19. 

Sentiment, in religion, 35-36; pre- 
Christian, in China, 83; Buddhist 
Christian, 107. 

Sermons, by a man who believes in 
science, 50. 

Seth, 97. 

Seven, Jolly Gods of Japan, 138; sa- 
cred number, 173. 

Sex, ethics, 50, 173; theory of, 37. 

Seydel, 139. 

Seymour, Rev. W. W., 113, 

Shakespeare, i73< 

Shaksper, William, 173. 

Shaku, Rt Rev. Soyea, 75, 129, 173. 

Shankara, xoo. 

Shaw, George W., 60. 

Sheol, 98. 

Shimonoseld, 99. 

Shipman, Paul R., 94. 

Signets, 173. 

Significance, of music, 153; of naming 
things, 173. 

Silent, death is, 115. 

Siloam, 174. 

Simians, 174. 



INDEX 



209 



Simon Magus, 126, 139. 

Simplicity, 22, 23. 

Sin, against the Holy Ghott^ 174. 

Sinologists, 80. 

Sixth sense, 174. 

Skeleton, the, representathre of death, 

114, 174. 
Sketch (see foreword). 
Smith, Goldwin, 174. 
Smith, Rer. Oliver H. P., IS3, 124, 

174. 

Sodalim, 96, 174. 

Society, or the individual? 46. 

Society of Psychical Reteardi, 175. 

Socrates, 174. 

Sokal, Edward, 169. 

Solar, heroes, 60; symbol, IM$, 

Solipsism, 151. 

Solstitial temples, 174. 

Somnambulism, 14J. 

Sonata, life a, 15a. 

Songs, 27, 109, 152. 

Soul, form, 11; origin and nature of, 
37, 43; double, 117; Goethe, 129; 
immortality, 136; summaries of ar- 
ticles on, 175*176. 

SOUL OF MAN, THE. 37. 

Source, of activity, 21; of gospels, 
129. 

South Africa, 11 a. 

Space, pure, mathematical, physiologic 
cal, 41; summaries of artidea on» 
176. 

Spanish War, 176. 

Speculation, idle, 78. 

Spencerism, 94. 

Spencer, Herbert, on progress, 20; 
Kant, 34; metaphysics, 99; Hedon- 
iam, and Kant'a ethics, 133; JusHci 



reviewed, 140; summaries of ar- 
ticles on, 176. 

Spenser, Edmund, 11. 

Spinal cord, 177. 

Spinning damsel, the, 177. 

Spinoza, Benedictus de, 177. 

Spirit, feminine gender, 182. 

Spiritism, and immortality, 136, 177. 

Spiritualism, ghosts, 126, 135; frauds, 
146; monism opposes, 150. 

Spontaneity, 154. (See necessity.) 

Spontaneous religious beliefs, 107. 

"Spottcrudfix," the, 97. 

Stage, reformed, 177. 

State, the, superpersonal, 46; Phil- 
ippines, 105; clean money, 109; 
Am. Railway Union, 116; expan- 
sion, 121; religious conferences, 
167; revolution, 169; a natural po- 
litical product, 177. 

Starr, Prof. Frederick, 94. 

Statue, embodiment, ij; of Buddha, 

lOI. 

Staurolatry, 177. 

Stead, W. T., 126. 

Steele, G. M., 99. 

Stein, Ludwig, 163. 

Still small voice, the, 177. 

St Louis Exposition, 94, iii, 135. 

Stockwell, C. T., 120. 

Stonehenge, 178. 

Stone worship, Caaba, 103; Rosetta, 
107; Stonehenge, 178. 

Stone's fall, the, 178. 

Stories of Buddhism, 73. 

"Storm and Stress." in Orman lit- 
erature, 109; in Christianity, 126. 

STORY OF SAMSON, THE. 59. 

Straight line, the, 42, 178. 

Strange caae, a, 153. 



210 



INDEX 



Stray shots, 159. 


Symbolism, Christian, 135; pre-Chri** 


Striate body, the, 39. 


tian, 157. 


Strikes, of the horses, 178; side 


Symbols, pragmatic tendency of, ao; 


switches of progress, 182. 


dogmas as, 26; Chinese, 77; of all 


Struggle, ethics of, 119; of pre-Chris- 


religions, 1x3; double eagle, xx6; 


tian religions, 157; in the far East, 


vary, religion remains, 135; old, in 


178. 


new sense, X56; seal of Christ, 172; 


Stumbling block, in philosophy, a, 35. 


persistence of, X79. 


Suala, 98. 


Sympathy, international, 8; reader's. 


Subliminal, 38. 


28. 


Substance and form, s* 


Symphony, an embodiment, 27. 


Suffrage, woman's, 185. 


Symposium, occultism in mathemat- 


Suggestibility of crowds, X78« 


ics, X45. 


Suggestion, hypnotic, 179. 


Synonyms, mind and spirit not al- 


Suicide, justifiable? is, 179. 


ways, X48. 


^i** generis, vitality, 16. 




Sumerians, 153. 


T'AI-SHANG.KAN-YING P'lEN, 83. 


Summaries, of books, 29-93; of arti- 


Tao Teh King, X4X. 


cles, 93-187. 


Taoism, 179. 


Summero-Accadians, 57. 


Tathagatha, 76, 


Sunday, 108. 


Tax theories, income, 174; single, X79. 


Sunset Club, 1x8, 121. 


Taxation, representation without, x68; 


Super-personal God, the, 127, 138. 


of capital, 179. 


Superscientific, and pure reason. 179. 


Teacher, a great moral, 8x. 


Superreal, the, 24, 42. 


Teleiosis, 130. 


Superstition, in religion and science, 


Teleology, 3X. 


165, 179; in modern liberalism, 170. 


Telepathy, X29. 


Supreme Court and the P. O., 162, 


Telephus, 143. 


179. 


Temptation of Buddha, xox. 


Sutta Nipata, Z03. 


Tendencies, modern scientific, X47. 


Surd, the, in philosophy, 34; in 


Tenets, Buddhism, 68. 


mathematics, 35. 


Terminology, Kant's hard, 33; 


SURD OF METAPHYSICS, THE, 


Haeckel's, 13 1. 


34. 


Terms, confusion of, 11; Egyptian 


Surrogates, 55. 


resurrection, iii; psychology, X64. 


Survey, a systematic, 31, 


Test, of philosophy, 14; of progress. 


Suzuki, Kwasong, 75. 


X63, 179. 


Suzuki, Teitaro, 83. 


Text book, for the mentalist, 40; 


Swastika, 124. 


of Buddhism, 70-71; Chinese-Eng* 


Swedenborgian, 126. 


Ush, 83. 



INDEX 



211 



Tidings of Joy, i8i. 


conservative, 60; apocryphal, 89; 


Tide, Prof., i82. 


Queen of Sheba, X64. 


Time, 176. 


Tragedy, 182. 


Tiridates, X07. 


Transfigured, history, by myth, 34. 


Thalmic region, the, xoi. 


Transcendentalism, modern, 33. 


Thanksgiving Day, 180. 


Transient, bodily existence, 24. 


Theater, 177. 


Transition, in modem theology, period 


Theist? Dr. Carus a, 137. 


of, x8o. 


Theology, and astrology, 56; sum- 


Translation, 71, 84. 


maries of articles on, 180. 


Traubel, Horace L., XX9. 


Theonomy and astronomy, 56. 


Traveling, during a strike, x8a. 


Theophanies, i8x. 


Treason and reform, x82. 


Thophilus, 165. 


Trigrams, 79. 


Theory of self, Max Mueller's, 152. 


Trilogy, Buddhist, 77, 


Theosophy, 134. 


Trinity, the, a universal conception, 


Thibet, first missions in, X07, 181; 


X82. 


skeleton dance, 1 14. 


Trumbull, Gen. M. M., xi8, X83. 


"Thingishness," actuality, 5. 


Trusts and Unions, epic of two 


Things-in-themselves, do not exist, 


monsters, 126. 


XX ; the surd in philosophy, 34 ff; 


Truth, once true, always true, 4; of 


Schiller's verse on, 36; tht prob- 


immortality, 2a; verified, 50, 53; 


lem of, x8x. 


living it, 143 ; possible?, is re- 


Third Commandment, x8x. 


ligious, 167; summaries of articles 


Thobum, J. M., 107. 


on, X83. 


Thomson, William, Lord Kelvin, 181. 


Twelve Tales, X59. 


Thought, organ of, 3; is monism a 


Tychism, 159, 183. 


terminus of? 149; summaries of 


Type, X83. 


articles on, i8x. 




Three characteristics, x8x. 


Ultimate cause, xx. 


Thrift and taxation, 179. 


Unbelievers, 50. 


Thumann, Paul, 90. 


Uniqueness, pure space, 41. 


Thurtell, Ellis, 94, 137, 149, x8s. 


Unity, of purpose, 28; church, Chi- 


To-day, X20. 


csgo, 139; of souls, X76; of truth. 


Tolerance, 162. 


X83. 


Tolstoy, Count, conunends Karma, 


Universal, maxims, X30; peace, X55; 


74; 8oth birthday, x82. 


writing, X58; religions, X67; creed. 


Tool, the, philosophy of, 3X, x8a. 


x8o; philosophy of the, X83. 


Topics, philosophical, 29, 


Universality of God, 54. 


Trace, i. e., image, 19. 


Universe, the, soul of, 39-40, 175; 


Tradition, Cardinal Newman, 56-57, 


moral? 183. 



212 



INDEX 



Universities, German, 125. 
Unknowable, god of nescience, 55; 

is any tiling in causation? 104; The, 

183. 
Unmateriality, of the soul, 128; of 

God, 175. 
Untenable, 52, 151. 
Urchin, street, 23. 
Urim and Thummin, x86. 
Utility and evolution, xai. 
Utopian, questions of labor, X04; 

international language, xx8. 

Value of mysticism, 153. 
Vedantism, 139. 

Vegetarianism, Christ's words, 183. 
Venezuela, the Monroe doctrine and, 

X51. 

Venus of Milo, 183. 

Vera Icon, 184. 

Verse, Schiller, 36. 

Vestigia, 18. 

Via Appia, 97. 

Vicarious atonement, pre-Christian, 
X08, 184. 

Vicious, habit in metaphysicism, 147. 

View, bird's-eye, 77, 

Vinegar, and bigotry, 66. 

Violin notation, 152, 184. 

Virgil, 107. 

Virgin, vestal, 158. 

Virtue and morality, 151. 

Vitalism, questions of, 37> 184* 

Vitality, a phenomenon, 16; conserva- 
tion of, 184. 

Vital-theology, Mr. Bell's, 180. 

Vivisectionists, 96. 

Vocation, the, 184. 

Voclce, William, 137. 

Vogt, I. G., 161. 



Voter, the irresponsible, x68. 
Von Gizycki, Prof., 165. 

Wagner, Richard, 184. 

Wake, C. S., x8x, 184. 

Wakeman, T. B., 102. 

Ward, Prof. Lester P., 148. 

Water of life, a Chinese tcnlpture, 
184. 

Weber, Dr. Wmiam, xo8. 

Weimar, Goethe museum in, 128. 

Wheel, the, and the cross, 1x3. 

WHENCE AND WHITHER? 43. 
X84. 

White corpuscles, X47, X48. 

Widow's Two Mites, Buddhist parar 
ble, X84. 

Wilkinson, Mr. W. E. Ayton, xxx, 
X56, XS9. 

Will, freedom of, 39; Th. Ribot on, 
X84. 

Wise and foolish, poem, 94. 

Witch persecution, 93; religion of 
science and, x66; abolition of, 184; 
summaries of articles, 184-185. 

Withrow, Rev. W. H., X26. 

Witness, God's works his own, 70. 

Woman, of Samaria, the, 184; eman- 
cipation of, 185. 

Womanhood, ideal, 6a. 

Woodcuts, fifteenth century, 1x4. 

Words, X47, 185. 

Work of the Open Court, X69. 

Worship, image, X35. 

World, folk-lore, 89; religions, two 
great, X02; language, Ostwald's 
theory, X57; parliament of reli- 
gions, 167; renunciation, modem 
instance of, X85.